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Part 1 - GeneralEffective May 11, 2006

Measurements
1.01
In these Regulations, where a unit of measurement is given in metric (Système Internationale d’Unités – SI), the metric unit is binding, and if an Imperial unit appears in parentheses after it, the Imperial unit is an approximate equivalent.

DEFINITIONS

1.02
In these Regulations only new definitions will be explained: for other definitions, see the Occupational Health and Safety Act and the Workers’ Compensation Act.
"administrative controls"
means the provision, use and scheduling of work activities and resources in the workplace, including planning, organizing, staffing and coordinating, for the purpose of controlling risk;
"director"
means the director of Occupational Health and Safety;
"electrical worker"
means an electrical journeyperson or a person with equivalent training and experience who can perform electrical work under the supervision of an electrical journeyperson;
"engineering controls"
means the physical arrangement, design or alteration of workstations, equipment, materials, production facilities or other aspects of the physical work environment, for the purpose of controlling risk;
"heavy equipment"
means mobile equipment;
"hazard"
means a thing or condition that may expose a person to a risk of injury or occupational disease;
"IDLH"
means “Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health”; and includes a high hazard atmosphere where the concentration of oxygen or flammable or toxic air contaminants would cause a worker without respiratory protection to be fatally injured or would have irreversible and incapacitating effects on that worker’s health;
"manufacturer’s specification"
means the written instructions or recommendations of a manufacturer of a machine, materials, tools, equipment or mobile equipment that outline the manner in which the machine, materials, tools or equipment is to be erected, installed, assembled, started, operated, used, handled, stored, stopped, adjusted, maintained, repaired or dismantled, and includes an installation, operating or maintenance manual and drawings;
"NFPA"
means the National Fire Protection Association;
"professional engineer"
means a person who is registered and licensed to practise engineering under the provisions of the Engineering Profession Act;
"public way"
means any publicly or privately owned cul-de-sac, boulevard, thoroughfare, street, road, trail, avenue, parkway, viaduct, lane, alley, square, bridge, causeway, trestleway, sidewalk, highway, ditch along any public way and highway right-of-way within 30 metres of the centerline;
"qualified person"
means a person who has education, experience and training in the recognition, evaluation and control of hazards associated with the work;
"SCBA"
means self contained breathing apparatus;
"workplace"
means a place where a worker is engaged in work.

VARIANCES

Variances
1.03
A requirement of these Regulations may be modified by following the procedures outlined in this section.
Written application
(1)
On written application by an employer, the director may modify the application of a requirement of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations on the grounds of
(a)
availability of equipment improvements, or
(b)
availability of alternate processes or procedures.
Minimum requirement
(2)
Any employer proposing a modification of a requirement of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations must demonstrate, as a minimum requirement, that the modification of a requirement provides an equal or greater level of protection for worker health and safety.
Engineering report
(3)
The director may require the employer, at the employer's expense, to provide evidence from a professional engineer or other expert acceptable to the director with respect to the proposed modification of a requirement of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations.
Appeal
NOTE
Any person aggrieved by a written decision of the director to modify the requirement of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations may appeal to the Board under the Occupational Health and Safety Act.

GENERAL

Eliminate or control hazards
1.04
All reasonable precautions shall be taken, and measures implemented, to prevent occupational injuries and diseases to workers by
(a)
eliminating hazards where possible,
(b)
controlling hazards through engineering and administrative procedures,
(c)
developing safe work procedures, and
(d)
providing the information, training and personal protective equipment where it is not possible to eliminate or control the hazards.
Impairment or personal limitation
1.05
(1)
All workers shall inform the employer of known physical or mental impairments or limitations where their physical or mental impairment or limitation may endanger themselves or others in the workplace.
(2)
Workers with a physical or mental impairment or limitation shall not be assigned to a workplace, or engage in work where their physical or mental impairment or limitation may endanger themselves or others.
(3)
Workers shall not enter, remain or be permitted to remain in a workplace while their ability to work may be affected by alcohol, drugs or other substances so as to endanger their health or safety or that of any other person.
Training for workers
1.06
A worker shall only operate any tool, equipment, machinery or process if he or she is
(a)
adequately trained in the safe operation of the equipment or process involved, and the related safe work procedure, and
(b)
duly authorized, licensed and certified, where applicable, to do so.
Inspection –prior to operation or repair
1.07
(1)
Before a worker operates any equipment or machinery, all affected areas shall be inspected to ensure that
(a)
all safeguards and controls are in place and functioning properly, and
(b)
the operation of the equipment or machinery will not cause any undue risk of injury to workers in the area.
(2)
Before any part of a machine or equipment is cleaned, oiled, adjusted or repaired
(a)
any motion that may endanger a worker shall be stopped, and
(b)
any part that has been stopped shall be immobilized.

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING – GENERAL

Workers’ responsibility to provide and wear
1.08
All workers shall provide and wear
(a)
clothing to protect themselves against the natural elements,
(b)
general purpose work gloves where required by the nature of the work or the elements, and
(c)
appropriate footwear including safety footwear as described in subsection 1.13(c) of these Regulations, where there is risk of injury to the feet.
Responsibility for PPE
1.09
All workers shall be provided, at no cost to the workers, with all personal protective equipment, specialty clothing or equipment required by these Regulations except those listed in section 1.08, and the equipment or clothing shall be
Effective protection
(a)
selected, used and maintained to provide effective protection in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and recognized standards and these Regulations,
Compatible
(b)
compatible with other equipment and will not present a hazard to the user,
Replacement
(c)
replaced with alternative equipment or other measures if the use of the selected equipment creates hazards equal to or greater than those its use was intended to protect against,
(d)
replaced by alternative equipment or safe procedures or measures if the equipment causes allergenic or other adverse health effects,
(e)
promptly replaced if deteriorated or if it does not meet the requirements of the applicable standard and these Regulations, or if the conditions of use change, and
Selection
(f)
selected in consultation with the joint occupational health and safety committee or the health and safety representative, or the worker who will use it.
Availability of PPE
1.10
Appropriate personal protective equipment shall be
(a)
readily available to workers, with appropriate training provided, and
(b)
properly used, cleaned, inspected, maintained and stored.
Inspection and care
1.11
(1)
Personal protective equipment required by these Regulations shall be used in accordance with these Regulations.
(2)
Personal protective equipment shall be used in accordance with the instruction and training provided to workers, and
(a)
the equipment shall be inspected before each use,
(b)
any equipment malfunction shall be reported to the supervisor or employer and the equipment shall not be used until it is repaired, and
(c)
the equipment shall be cleaned, maintained and stored in accordance with the instructions and training.
Conditions
1.12
(1)
The personal clothing of a worker shall be of a type and in a condition that will not expose the worker to any hazards.
Moving parts
(2)
Where there is a danger of contact with the moving parts of machinery, or with electrically energized equipment, or where the work process presents similar hazards
Close fitting clothing
(a)
the clothing of the worker shall fit the body closely,
Head and facial hair
(b)
head and facial hair shall be confined, or worn at a length that will prevent it from being snagged or caught in the work process or equipment, and
Jewellery
(c)
dangling neckwear, bracelets, wristwatches, rings or similar articles shall not be worn, except for non-conductive medical alert bracelets that fit snugly to the skin.

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING – FOOTWEAR

1.13
The worker shall be required to wear effective and appropriate footwear and ensure that
Condition
(a)
it is in good condition and provides the required protection,
Appropriate
(b)
it is of a design, construction and material type appropriate to the protection required,
Standards
(c)
footwear selected for toe protection, metatarsal protection, puncture resistant sole, dielectric protection or any combination, meets the requirements of
i.
CSA Standard Z195-02, Protective Footwear,
ii.
ANSI Standard Z41, Footwear, Protective Personal Protection, or
iii.
other similar standards acceptable to the director.
Non-slip
(d)
non-slip footwear is worn where the walking surface is slippery, and
Caulked
(e)
caulked or other equally effective footwear is worn when walking on poles, pilings, logs or other round timbers.

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING – SKIN, LEG AND BODY

Provision
1.14
Appropriate skin, hand, foot or body protection shall be provided if a worker may be exposed to a substance or a condition that may puncture, abrade, burn, corrode, electrically shock or otherwise adversely affect the skin or be absorbed through it.
Fire resistant clothing
1.15
The worker shall ensure that fire resistant clothing appropriate to the risk is worn where there may be exposure to a flash fire, molten metal, welding and burning or similar hot work hazards.
Leg protection
1.16
Leg protective devices, meeting the requirements of "Protective Devices for Chainsaw Users" of Standard Council of Canada or other similar standard acceptable to the director, shall be provided to a worker operating a chain saw, except where a firefighter is using a chainsaw in a structural fire.

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING – HEADWEAR

Requirement to wear
1.17
Workers shall be required to wear appropriate safety headwear where there is or may be a danger of injury to the head from falling, flying or thrown objects or any other contacts, or where the headwear is used to make the worker more visible in the workplace.
Provision and use
1.18
Safety headwear shall be provided to and worn by workers and shall
Non-conductive
(a)
have a non-conductive rating where workers may be exposed to electrical hazards,
Highly visible
(b)
be blaze orange, red or another high visibility colour or have retro-reflective decaling to make the worker more visible, such as when working around moving equipment, in forestry operations or controlling traffic,
Standards
(c)
meet the requirement of
i.
CSA Standard Z-94.1-05, Industrial Protective Headwear - Performance, Selection, Care and Use,
ii.
ANSI Standard Z89.1-2003, Industrial Head Protection, or
iii.
other similar standards acceptable to the director.
(d)
meet previously published CSA or ANSI standards, remain in service only as long as it is in good condition and provide effective head protection,
Chinstraps
(e)
have an effective means of headwear retention when the worker is working in conditions that may cause loss of the headwear, and
Winter liners
(f)
be equipped with winter liners in cold weather.
Bump caps
1.19
Workers are only allowed to wear a bump cap when the danger of an injury is limited to bumping the head against a stationary object.
Off road vehicles
1.20
Operators and passengers of all terrain vehicles, snow vehicles, motor cycles or similar vehicles must wear protective headwear that meets
(a)
CSA Standard D230-M85, Protective Headgear in Motor Vehicle Applications,
(b)
US Federal Standard for Motorcycle Helmets (Title-49-Transportation-Part 571.218), or
(c)
other similar standards acceptable to the director.
Other head protection
1.21
Workers riding bicycles, using in-line skates or similar means of transport, shall wear headwear meeting the requirements of
(a)
CSA Standard D113.2-M89, Cycling Helmets, or
(b)
other similar standard acceptable to the director.

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING – EYE AND FACE

Provision and requirements for use
1.22
A worker shall be required to wear properly fitting safety eyewear, goggles, face shields, side shields, glasses or other such protective items provided by the employer and appropriate to the workplace conditions where the worker
(a)
handles, uses or is exposed to materials or substances that may injure the eyes,
(b)
is engaged in or is around work or processes where objects or particles may fly, be thrown about or otherwise cause danger of impact with the eyes,
(c)
is exposed to excessive light, heat rays, electric arcs or similar hazards,
(d)
has 20/200 or less vision in either eye or is blind in either eye,
(e)
is working on or testing energized electrical equipment, or
(f)
is working with laser beams.
Standards
1.23
Face protectors, prescription and non-prescription safety eyewear shall meet the requirements of
(a)
CSA Standard Z94.3-02, Eye and Face Protectors,
(b)
ANSI Standard Z87.1-2003, Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices, or
(c)
other similar standards acceptable to the director.
1.24
The worker as described in 1.22 shall ensure that
Limited vision
(a)
the employer is notified when the worker wears contact lenses, has 20/200 vision or less in either eye, or is blind in either eye,
Use of prescription safety eyewear
(b)
prescription safety eyewear meets the requirements of CSA Standard Z94.3-02, Eye and Face Protectors, or other similar standard acceptable to the director,
(c)
adequate precautions are taken if a hazardous substance or condition may adversely affect the worker when wearing contact lenses,
Bifocal, trifocal
(d)
bifocal and trifocal glass lenses are not worn if there is a danger of impact, unless they are worn behind impact rated eye protection, and
Polycarbonate lenses
(e)
where the use of polycarbonate or plastic prescription lenses is not practicable due to conditions present at the workplace and there is no danger of impact, prescription lenses made of treated safety glass meet the requirements of the following standard
i.
ANSI Z87.1-2003, Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices, or
ii.
other similar standard acceptable to the director.

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING – HEARING

Provision
1.25
Workers shall be required to wear appropriate hearing protection devices provided by the employer when they are required to work in an area where the noise level cannot be controlled below the permissible values established in the Occupational Health Regulations.

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING – RESPIRATORY

1.26
Where a worker is or may be exposed to an air contaminant in excess of the permissible concentration or excursion limit, or to an oxygen-deficient or -enriched atmosphere, as established by the Occupational Health Regulations
Air quality evaluation
(a)
the employer shall carry out a comprehensive determination and evaluation to assess the quality of the air and the measures required to render the atmosphere safe to work in, and
Proper ventilation
(b)
when necessary, as established by the Occupational Health Regulations, a proper ventilation system or other measure shall be installed or implemented.
Requirement for use
1.27
Where air contamination beyond the permissible concentration occurs at a workplace as a temporary or an emergency situation, and where a worker is or may be exposed to such atmosphere
Provision
(a)
the worker shall be provided with and wear appropriate respiratory protective equipment and be adequately trained in its use, limitations and maintenance, and
Standards
(b)
the respiratory equipment shall be selected in accordance with the CSA Standard Z94.4-02, Selection, Use and Care of Respirators or other similar standard acceptable to the director.
Worker IDLH or oxygen deficient atmosphere
1.28
If a worker is required to enter or work in an IDLH or oxygen-deficient atmosphere, or where there is risk of accidental release of an air contaminant or development of such conditions, the employer shall provide and the worker shall
SCBA
(a)
wear a full facepiece positive pressure respirator that is an SCBA, or an airline respirator with auxiliary self-contained air cylinder of sufficient capacity to permit the worker to escape from the contaminated area without any assistance if air supply fails,
Attendant
(b)
be attended by at least one other worker who is similarly equipped, trained and capable of effecting rescue, stationed at or near the entrance to the contaminated area, and
Training
(c)
be aware of the requirements of Part 2 - Confined Spaces.
Emergency escape air bottle
1.29
A worker using SCBA or an airline respirator shall
(a)
carry an emergency escape air bottle if there is any possibility that the worker may not be able to escape from a contaminated area without assistance, and
(b)
carry the emergency escape air bottle or ensure that it is within arm's reach at all times.
Annual testing of air quality
1.30
The compressed air supplied to respirators, such as SCBA or "supplied air respirators", shall be tested at least annually to check the quality of the air and compliance with the requirements of CSA Standard Z180.1-00, Compressed Breathing Air and Systems, or other similar standard acceptable to the director.
Eyewear
1.31
(1)
When a worker uses a positive pressure full facepiece respirator, nothing shall be permitted to interfere with the face seal of the facepiece except for specialty eyewear approved by the manufacturer of the respirator or the director for use with positive pressure full facepiece respirators.
(2)
Appropriate specialty corrective eyewear shall be provided to a worker whose prescription eyeglasses may interfere with the use of a full facepiece respirator.
(3)
A worker may use contact lenses with positive pressure full facepiece respirators if the use of contact lenses will not affect the health or safety of the worker.
Clean shaven face
1.32
A worker required to wear a respirator that requires an effective seal with the face for proper functioning shall be clean-shaven where the respirator seals with the face.
Fit checks
1.33
Fit tests and fit checks shall be carried out on workers as required to ensure an acceptable performance from the respirators being used and records of the tests shall be maintained.

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING – BUOYANCY EQUIPMENT

Provision and use
1.34
Each worker shall be provided with, and be required to use, an appropriate personal flotation device with the required buoyancy where a worker is employed in a situation where there is a risk of drowning unless
Alternate plan
(a)
other safety measures acceptable to the director are in place that will protect workers from the risk of drowning, or
Shallow water
(b)
the water is too shallow to allow the personal flotation device to function effectively.
Buoyancy
1.35
Personal flotation equipment provided to the worker shall not require any manual manipulation to produce buoyancy, and shall be appropriately labelled and meet the requirements of
Standards
(a)
CGSB Standard B-65.11-M88, Personal Floatation Devices,
(b)
CGSB Standard 65.7-M88, Lifejackets, Inherently Buoyant Type,
(c)
CGSB Standard 65-GP-14M, Lifejackets, Inherently Buoyant, Standard Type, or
(d)
other similar standards acceptable to the director.
Auto-inflatable life jackets
1.36
Automatically inflatable lifejackets shall only be used if they are inspected and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and recommendations, and records of all inspections and maintenance shall be maintained.

PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHING – FALL ARREST

Provision and use
1.37
Where it is not practical to protect a worker by guards, guardrails, safety nets or other devices, the worker shall be provided with and required to use the appropriate fall arrest protection
Where required
(a)
when working at a place from which a fall of
i.
3 m (10 ft.) or more may occur, or
ii.
less than 3 m (10 ft.), if it involves an unusual risk of injury,
(b)
where there is a possibility of falling into a pit, shaft, machinery, water or bulk material that could shift,
(c)
when climbing or descending from utility poles, communication and transmission towers or single point suspension equipment,
(d)
when working on a swing stage or thrust out scaffold, elevating work platform or basket or suspended platform or cage,
(e)
when barring or scaling loose material from a wall in an open pit or an earth work, or
(f)
when working on a roof
i.
having a slope of 2 vertical to 3 horizontal or steeper, or
ii.
where the surface is slippery
Fall protection program
1.38
Where work is performed at a location not protected by permanent guardrails and from which a fall of 7.5 m (25 ft.) or more may occur, a written fall protection plan shall be in place and communicated to workers with adequate consideration and description of
(a)
falling hazards expected,
(b)
fall protection system or systems to be used,
(c)
the procedure to assemble, maintain, inspect, use and disassemble the fall protection system or systems, and
(d)
methods to rescue a fallen worker or one who is suspended by a personal fall protection system or safety net and is unable to effect self rescue.
Components
1.39
A worker shall
(a)
when using a personal protection system for fall arrest, wear a full body harness or other such acceptable harness or device which meets the requirements of CSA Standard Z259.10-M90, Full Body Harness or other similar standard acceptable to the director,
(b)
when using a personal protection system for fall arrest, wear an energy absorbing system which meets the requirements of CSA Standard Z259.11-05, Energy Absorbers and Lanyards or other similar standard acceptable to the director, and
(c)
when using a personal protection system for fall restraint, wear a safety belt, a full body harness or other such acceptable harness or device and lanyard which meets CSA Standard Z259.1-95, Safety Belts and Lanyards, or other similar standard acceptable to the director.
Vertical lifelines
1.40
A vertical lifeline shall meet the requirements of CSA Standard Z259.2.1-98, Fall Arresters, Vertical Lifelines and Rails, or other similar standard acceptable to the director, and it shall be
(a)
secured independently to an anchor with adequate strength,
(b)
padded or protected at points of attachment and everywhere else the lifelines may come in contact with sharp or abrasive edges,
(c)
used to protect only one worker per line,
(d)
first grade, three strand, hawser laid manila rope of not less than 0.019 m (3/4 in.), having a breaking strength of not less than 24 kN (5400 lbs.), or synthetic or wire rope of at least equal strength,
(e)
wire rope or wire-cored manila rope when there is a possibility of the line being cut, burned or other quick severing incidence,
(f)
non-conductive and used in duplicate (two lines per worker), where workers are using the lifelines in proximity of an energized electrical line,
(g)
less than 90 m (300 ft.) in length, and
(h)
extended to within 3 m (10 ft.) of the ground or other safe landing.
Horizontal lifeline usage
1.41
Where a horizontal lifeline is used as a temporary system of fall restraint, it shall
(a)
be designed to provide an ultimate load capacity of at least 3.5 kN (800 lbs.) for each worker connected to it, and
(b)
be either certified by a professional engineer as meeting the requirements of a permanent system as outlined in section 1.42, or
(c)
meet the following requirements:
i.
the horizontal lifeline shall be a minimum of 0.012 m (1/2 in.) diameter wire rope with a breaking strength of at least 89 kN (20,000 lbs.),
ii.
the horizontal lifeline shall be free of splices except at the terminations,
iii.
all connecting hardware and end anchors shall have ultimate load capacity of at least 71 kN (16,000 lbs.),
iv.
the lifeline shall span at least 6 m (20 ft.) and not more than 18 m (60 ft.),
v.
the unloaded sag in the lifeline shall be approximately equal to the span length divided by 60, with a minimum elevation of 1 m (39 in.) above the work surface,
vi.
any free fall distance shall be limited to 1.2 m (4 ft.),
vii.
a minimum of 3.5 m (12 ft.) of unobstructed clearance shall be available below the working surface,
viii.
no more than three workers shall be secured to a horizontal lifeline, and
ix.
the lifeline shall be positioned so it does not impede safe movement of a worker.
Horizontal lifeline design
1.42
A permanent horizontal lifeline shall be designed by a professional engineer, who shall provide the workplace with signed and dated drawings and instructions for the lifeline system, indicating
(a)
the layout in plan and elevation, including anchor locations, installation specifications, anchor design and detailing,
(b)
system specifications that include permissible free fall distance, clearance to obstructions below, and rope size, breaking strength, termination details and initial sag or tension,
(c)
the number of workers permitted to connect to the lifeline, and maximum arrest force to each worker, and
(d)
written certification that the lifeline system has been installed in accordance with the design documents.
Lifelines and lanyards
1.43
Workers using lifelines and lanyards shall ensure that they are
(a)
free of knots or splices except at their terminals, and
(b)
capable of limiting the worker's free fall to less than 1.2 m (4 ft.).

PERSONAL HAZARDS

Restricted visibility
1.44
(1)
No workers shall work or be required to work in an area where visibility is restricted by the presence of dust, mist, smoke, steam, or other substances in the atmosphere, which might result in workers being exposed to hazards, unless a safe work procedure is in place.
Hot and cold hazards
(2)
Where practicable, high or low temperature sources shall be positioned or shielded to prevent a worker from accidental contact with the hazard.
(3)
Where such high and low temperature sources in (2) are necessarily unshielded or exposed, workers shall wear the required personal protective equipment.

EMERGENCY SHOWERS

Location
1.45
Emergency showers, eye wash fountains or other appropriate facilities shall be provided in areas where a worker's skin or eyes may be exposed to contamination from materials at the workplace.

PUBLIC WAY

1.46
(1)
Before the construction, alteration, repair, dismantling or demolition of a building begins within 2 m (6.5 ft.) of a public way, a covered way shall be constructed over that part of the public way immediately adjacent to the building.
Covered public way
(2)
Where a covered way is required under subsection (1), it shall
(a)
have a clear height of not less than 2.5 m (8 ft.),
(b)
have a clear width of not less than 1.5 m (5 ft.) or where it is over a sidewalk that is less than 1.5 m (5 ft.) a width equal to the width of the sidewalk,
(c)
be capable of supporting any load likely to be applied to it, but in no case less than 2.4 kN per sq. m (50 lbs. per sq. ft.) on the roof,
(d)
have a weather-tight roof sloped toward the project,
(e)
be totally enclosed on the project side with a structure having a reasonably smooth surface facing the public way,
(f)
have a railing 1.07 m (42 in.) in height on the street side where the covered way is supported by posts on the street side, and
(g)
be adequately lighted.
Fencing, barricades and restricted access
(3)
When a project of the kind described in subsection (1) may constitute a hazard to the public and is located 2 m (6.5 ft.) or more from a public way, a strongly constructed fence, boarding or barricade not less than 1.8 m (6 ft.) in height shall be erected between the project and the public way.
(4)
Barricades shall have a reasonably smooth surface facing the public way and be free of openings, except those required for access.
(5)
Access openings through barricades shall be equipped with gates that shall be kept closed and locked when the project is unattended and shall be maintained in place until completion of the project.
(6)
Where any special hazard exists from which it is not possible to protect the public by other means, workers shall be employed to prevent the public from entering the danger zone at any time of the day or night.
(7)
When work on a construction site is suspended or discontinued, the hazardous parts of the construction site shall be protected by
(a)
covering all windows, doors and other openings located within 3 m (10 ft.) of the ground with a securely fastened barricade, or
(b)
constructing a fence or barricade according to the requirements of subsections (3), (4) and (5).
Public protection on roads
(8)
Where a project is on or adjacent to a public way, all machinery, equipment and material that might be a hazard to vehicular or pedestrian traffic shall be marked by flashing devices.
(9)
Where a public way or public property must be used to carry out works of short duration, public access shall be restricted or controlled by barriers or workers to direct traffic.
(10)
Warning lights shall be installed on or adjacent to all barriers during darkness or when visibility is poor.
Worker protection on public way
1.47
(1)
Where a worker may be endangered by vehicular traffic on a project on a public way, or on a public way on a project, workers shall be protected by such of the following measures as are necessary:
(a)
workers directing traffic,
(b)
warning signs,
(c)
solid barriers,
(d)
lane control devices or traffic lights,
(e)
flashing lights, strobe lights or flares,
(f)
pilot car, or
(g)
a combination of the above.
Instruction to workers
(2)
Workers who are required to direct traffic shall be given written and verbal instructions setting out the signals they are to use and the instructions they are to provide motorists.
Illumination of traffic control station
(3)
Workers required to direct traffic during hours of darkness shall be provided with lighting systems to illuminate the entire traffic control workstation, and additional retro-reflective devices such as wristbands and leg bands.

HIGH VISIBILITY APPAREL

NOTE
There are three levels of requirement for the application of high visibility equipment in section 1.48 (1), (3) and (5).
1.48
(1)
Workers must be provided with, and be required to wear, high visibility safety headwear and high visibility apparel when they are
Level 1 required
(a)
exposed to the hazards of moving vehicles or equipment,
(b)
directing traffic on a public way, or
(c)
are endangered by vehicular traffic on a public way.
Level 1 equipment
(2)
High visibility apparel for the purpose of subsection (1) is
(a)
a vest, coat, jacket, shirt or coveralls with a minimum of 0.13 sq. m (200 sq. in.) of background material on both front and back,
(b)
bright or fluorescent coloured background material of yellow, lime green, red or orange,
(c)
a minimum length of 0.61m (24in), and
(d)
trimmed with a minimum of 0.05 sq. m (80 sq. in.) of trim that is both fluorescent and retro-reflective which is at least 0.05 m (2 in.) wide, or an equivalent combination of fluorescent and retro-reflective trim in two vertical stripes on the front and an "X' pattern on the back of the garment.
Level 2 required
(3)
Workers shall be provided with, and wear, high visibility safety headwear and high visibility apparel when exposed to the danger of slow moving mobile equipment at a workplace.
Level 2 equipment
(4)
High visibility apparel for the purpose of subsection (3) is
(a)
at a minimum, a harness type garment with a minimum of 0.064 sq. m (100 sq. in.) background material, on both the front and back,
(b)
bright or fluorescent coloured background material of yellow, lime green, red or orange, and
(c)
a minimum of 0.51 m (20 in.) in length, and either
i.
a harness trimmed with a minimum of 0.064 sq. m (100 sq. in.) of trim that is both retro-reflective and fluorescent and is at least 0.05 m (2 in.) wide, or an equivalent combination of fluorescent and retro-reflective trim on the front, back and waistband, or
ii.
if it is other than a harness, trimmed with a minimum of 0.05 sq. m (80 sq. in.) of trim that is both retro-reflective and fluorescent which is at least 0.05 m (2 in.) wide, or an equivalent combination of fluorescent and retro-reflective trim in two vertical stripes on the front and an 'X' pattern on the back of the garment.
Level 3 required
(5)
Workers shall be provided with, and required to wear, high visibility headwear and high visibility apparel where there is a need to distinguish the worker in the workplace.
Level 3 equipment
(6)
High visibility headwear and high visibility apparel for the purpose of subsection (5) is
(a)
headwear that is bright coloured and contrasts sharply with the work environment,
(b)
a vest, coat, shirt, jacket, harness or coveralls at least 0.51 m (20 in.) in length, with a minimum of 0.064 sq. m (100 sq. in.) of background material on both front and back, and
(c)
bright or fluorescent coloured background material of yellow, lime green, red or orange, and either

TRANSPORTATION OF WORKERS

1.49
(1)
Vehicles used to transport workers shall have
(a)
ventilation in the seating areas,
(b)
an interior light,
(c)
a signal device or other effective method for passengers to communicate with the driver,
(d)
firmly secured seats with effective seat belts,
(e)
a safe means of access and egress,
(f)
a leak proof exhaust system with the outlets located such that the exhaust gases cannot enter the seating area, and
(g)
no loose material or equipment that could injure a worker in the seating area.
Prohibited materials
(2)
No explosive or flammable material, other than the normal fuel supply for the vehicle or the boat, shall be transported in the vehicle or boat while it is in use to transport workers.
Seating
(3)
No worker shall be required or permitted to
(a)
travel standing in a bus at the workplace, unless a protective measure has been provided against a standing worker being thrown off balance,
(b)
sit or ride with any portion of the body protruding outside any part of the vehicle or the boat, or
(c)
board or leave a vehicle or boat while it is in motion.
Boats
(4)
A worker shall be provided with and wear an appropriate personal flotation device while being transported in a boat.

WORKPLACE GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Access, egress and emergency egress
1.50
(1)
There must be a safe way of entering and leaving the workplace and a worker must not use any other way if it is hazardous.
(2)
Hazardous areas shall be secured with a locked door or by other equivalent means to prevent access by workers, unless there is a safe work procedure developed for the purpose and workers are instructed in it.
(3)
Access to and egress from all work areas, work stations, storage areas, shut off switches, control panels and any emergency supplies or equipment shall be unrestricted and unimpeded at all times.
(4)
An emergency means of escape shall be available from any area where the normal means of exit may be rendered dangerous or unusable from time to time.
Workplace maintenance
1.51
(1)
All floors, decks, platforms, stairs, ramps, walkways, aisles and catwalks shall be maintained in good repair and free of tripping and slipping hazards.
Slipping hazards due to liquids
(2)
Immediate action shall be taken to eliminate or control slipping or any other hazard originating from a spill or leak of a substance on a floor or other working surface.
(3)
Where a floor is wet because of the work process, devices such as matting or grating shall be used to eliminate the hazard of slipping.
Cleaning hazards
(4)
Proper clean-up and disposal methods, which do not create hazards to the worker, other people, equipment, structures or the environment shall be adopted and used.
Salvaged material hazards
1.52
(1)
Protruding nails shall be promptly removed from salvaged lumber.
(2)
Salvaged lumber shall be piled safely.
(3)
No accumulation of salvaged or scrap lumber sufficient to cause a safety hazard shall be allowed.
Fire hazards
1.53
(1)
Rags used for cleaning flammable liquids or harmful substances shall be kept in covered metal containers that are clearly labelled.
(2)
Flammable liquids or harmful substances shall be stored in approved containers and in accordance with Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System Regulations and the National Fire Protection Agency.
Use of compressed air
1.54
(1)
A worker using compressed air, steam or other propelling agent to remove dust, chips, dirt, grime, paint or other substance
(a)
shall not expose any worker to the direct or indirect jet stream or the material expelled or propelled by the jet, and
(b)
shall cease use if a fire, explosion or other hazard is likely to result.
(2)
A worker shall not blow dust from clothing being worn unless
(a)
there is an area specifically designated for such purpose,
(b)
all the workers in the area wear proper eye protection, and
(c)
only compressed air, with the pressure regulated down to 69 kPa (10 psi), or a safety nozzle that has the same limiting effect, is used.
Slipping and tripping hazards
1.55
(1)
Linoleum or other smooth or polished surfaces shall be treated with a non-slip preparation.
(2)
Rugs shall be maintained in good condition and torn or damaged floor coverings shall be replaced or repaired immediately.
(3)
Entrance steps and stairs to buildings shall be kept free from ice or snow at all times.
(4)
All stairways shall be equipped with anti-slip treads and suitable handrails.
(5)
Differences of floor elevations in aisles and corridors shall be clearly marked.
(6)
Computer, power and telephone outlets, wires and extension cords shall be located where they will not cause a tripping hazard.
(7)
Step ladders or stands with non-slip feet and treads shall be available to workers when trying to reach high places.
(8)
Materials shall not be placed on the floor where tripping may result.
Design of workplaces
1.56
Where practicable the workplace shall be designed, constructed and laid out
(a)
to conform to applicable fire, building or occupancy code,
(b)
to provide easy access to all exits,
(c)
so that all floors, platforms, stairs, structural components and equipment will withstand the anticipated loads, and
(d)
so that filing cabinets, vaults and other heavy objects are placed so as to distribute the weight over as large an area as possible.
Emergency lighting
1.57
An emergency lighting system shall be installed and maintained at a workplace that is used during hours of darkness or where a source of natural light is not available and shall
(a)
provide an adequate level of illumination for the area, but not less than 10.8 lux (1 foot-candle) at all exits,
(b)
be powered by a source independent of the general lighting system,
(c)
be controlled by an automatic device that will activate the secondary source of power, and
(d)
be inspected an maintained annually.

WALKWAYS

Specifications
1.58
Walkways shall be
(a)
clearly marked,
(b)
if elevated, be at least 1.45m (18in) wide,
(c)
1 m (3.3 ft.) in width if used as direct access to an exit, and
(d)
if elevated, accessed by means of a fixed ladder or stairway.

PLATFORMS, RUNWAYS AND RAMPS

Specifications
1.59
(1)
A runway, ramp or platform other than scaffold platform shall be
(a)
designed, constructed and maintained to support the anticipated load with the required margin of safety, but not less than 2.4 kN per sq. m (50 lbs. per sq. ft.),
(b)
0.45 m (18 in.) or more in width, and
(c)
securely fastened in place.
Sloped
(2)
A ramp shall have
(a)
a slope not exceeding a gradient of 1:3,
(b)
cross cleats installed where the slope exceeds a gradient of 1:8, and
(c)
cleats spaced at regular intervals not exceeding 0.5 m (20 in.), made from 0.02 m (3/4 in.) by 0.04 m (1-1/2 in.) size boards securely nailed to the ramp.
(3)
Where a ramp is installed in a stairwell of a building not exceeding two stories in height, the ramp slope shall not exceed a gradient of 1:1, and the cross cleats shall be
(a)
spaced at regular intervals not exceeding 0.3 m (12 in.), and
(b)
made from 0.038 m (1-1/2 in.) by 0.038 m (1-1/2 in.) size boards securely nailed to the ramp.
Attached to forms
(4)
Platforms and other structures hooked to concrete forms shall be
(a)
designed, fabricated and installed with consideration of the work to be performed and the related hazards,
(b)
supported on a solid foundation,
(c)
anchored securely at the rest point, and
(d)
not overloaded.

GUARDRAILS

Where required
1.60
Subject to subsection (f), areas accessible to a worker shall have guards or guardrails installed
(a)
if a raised floor, open-sided floor, mezzanine, gallery, balcony, work platform, surface of a bridge, a concrete roof or scaffold has a height exceeding 2.4 m (8 ft.),
(b)
if a walkway, runway, ramp or platform other than a scaffold is used as a path and is more than 1.2 m (4 ft.) in height,
(c)
on any walkway over or adjacent to any hazardous substance, or adjacent to or over machinery or a work area,
(d)
around the perimeter of any open container or containment area such as an open vat, bin, tank or pit that is 1.2 m (4 ft.) or more in depth, and with sides that do not extend at least as high as required for a guardrail above the adjacent grade or work surface,
(e)
if a stairway ends in direct proximity to dangerous traffic or other hazard, and
Loading docks, stages
(f)
except where other effective measures are taken to ensure that workers are protected from falls from the front edge of a loading dock or the edge of a performance stage.
Inspections
1.61
(1)
A competent person shall inspect guardrails on a regular basis and if they do not meet the specification requirements, the guardrails shall be repaired immediately to meet those requirements or they shall be replaced.
Gates
(2)
An opening for passage through a guardrail shall be equipped with a barrier or gate that may be removed temporarily to permit passage and then replaced immediately.
Removal
(3)
Where a guardrail is removed in order for work to be done,
(a)
adequate precautions shall be taken to ensure the safety of the workers, and
(b)
the area shall not be left unguarded.
(4)
A worker who removes a guardrail, in order to do a particular task, shall replace the guardrail before leaving the area.
Elevated workers
1.62
Where a worker working on stilts or a work platform is elevated above the floor, resulting in the reduction of the effective height of guardrails, walls or barricades to less than the required height in 1.63(2), additional guardrails or a personal fall protection system shall be provided and used.
Specifications for guards and guardrails
1.63
(1)
Guardrails shall be designed and installed to withstand
(a)
a load of 900 N (200 lbs.) applied horizontally at any point along the rail, and
(b)
a vertical load, downward of 1.5 kN per m (100 lbs. per ft.) along the top rail, but the horizontal and vertical loads need not be considered to act simultaneously.
Height and material type
(2)
A guardrail shall be
(a)
not made of fibre rope,
(b)
not less than 0.91 m (36 in.) in height or more than 1.07 m (42 in.) above the surface on which it is installed,
(c)
made of wood not less than 0.038 m by 0.089 m (1-1/2 in. by 3-1/2 in.), securely supported on posts of the same size, and spaced at intervals not more than 2.4 m (8 ft.), or
(d)
made of metal pipe with a top rail and vertical supporting posts that are at least 0.04 m (1-1/2 in.) in diameter and intermediate rails that are 0.025 m (1 in.) in diameter, or
(e)
made of angle iron with a top rail and vertical supporting posts that are at least 0.04 m x 0.04 m x 0.005 m (1-1/2 in. x 1-1/2 in. x 3/16 in.), and intermediate rails that are at least 0.032 m x 0.032 m x 0.003 m (1-1/4 in. x 1-1/4 in. x 1/8 in.), or
(f)
made of wire rope not less than 0.01 m (3/8 in.) in diameter, on vertical separators not less than 0.05 m (2 in.) wide, spaced at intervals of less than 2.4 m (8 ft.), and attached to a welded fastening on the vertical supporting posts with metal clips to prevent unnecessary sagging and easily distinguishable from the background, or
(g)
made from other materials, of at least equivalent strength and protection,
(h)
free of sharp edges, plinters and protruding nails, and
(i)
kept taut by means of turnbuckles where wire rope is used.

TOEBOARDS

1.64
(1)
Floor Openings, elevated walkways and platforms shall have toeboards if there is a danger from tools, materials, equipment or debris falling off the edge of the work surface, or there is a danger of slipping off the work surface due to environmental conditions or work practices being used.
Height
(2)
The top of a toeboard shall be at least 0.1 m (4 in.) above the floor or platform, and the space between the bottom of the toeboard and the floor or platform shall not exceed 0.013 m (1/2 in.).
Material
(3)
The toeboard shall be made of 0.019 m by 0.089 m (3/4 in. by 3-1/2 in.) wood or of materials of equivalent strength and protection.
(4)
The height of the toeboards shall be increased, or mesh panels or other protective devices shall be installed where materials placed near the edge of an overhead area present a hazard to the area below, to prevent material placed near the edge of an overhead area from falling to the area below.

HANDRAILS ON STAIRWAYS

When required
1.65
(1)
Stairs with more than four risers shall have continuous handrails on
(a)
any open side of the stairway,
(b)
one side of enclosed stairways 1 m (3.3 ft.) or less in width, and
(c)
both sides of enclosed stairways over 1 m (3.3 ft.) wide.
Height
(2)
The top of a handrail shall be 0.8 m to 0.9 m (32 in. to 35 in.) above the stair tread, measured vertically from the nose of the tread, and the height shall not vary on any flight or succession of flights of stairs.
(3)
A handrail on an open side of a stairway shall have a mid-rail located approximately midway between the top of the handrail and the nose of the stair tread.
Strength
(4)
A handrail shall be able to withstand a load of 1.3 kN (300 lbs.) applied vertically or horizontally at any point along the handrail.
(5)
A handrail shall extend 0.3 m (1 ft.) beyond the top and bottom stairs.

OPENINGS

Covered or guarded
1.66
(1)
A pit or other opening in a floor, walkway, roof or other area accessible to a worker, shall be securely covered or guarded by properly identified fixed or movable guardrails, and kept in place except when removed to work in the opening or pit.
Specifications
(2)
Where the opening referred to in subsection (1) is covered with a plank or other equivalent material, it shall be capable of supporting a live load of at least 2.4 kN per sq. m (50 lbs. per sq. ft.).
Vehicle service pits
(3)
Where the opening is a vehicle service pit
(a)
the area around the perimeter of the pit shall be curbed to a height of 1/4 of the outside diameter of the largest tire expected to be on the pit,
(b)
it shall be marked in a high visibility colour extending back at least 1 m (3.3 ft.) from the edge of the pit, and
(c)
the marking coating or material shall provide a skid resistant surface.
Trap doors
(4)
Where the opening is a trap door in a performance stage, alternate measures shall be taken to protect the workers.
Guarding openings
1.67
(1)
An opening into which a worker may fall, other than a hatchway, chute, pit or trap-door opening, shall be guarded
(a)
on all exposed sideds by guardrails, or
(b)
by an adequately stong and supported cover, secured over the opening.
(2)
Notwithstanding subsection (1), where an opening leads to a stairway or ladder, it shall be guarded on all exposed sides, other than the entrance to the stairway or ladder, by guardrails.
(3)
Where a cover is used over an opening and is not in place, the opening shall be constantly attended by a person or guarded by a guardrail on all exposed sides.
(4)
A hatchway, chute, pit or trap-door opening into which an employee may fall shall be guarded
(a)
by guardrails that are removable on not more than two sides and that are fixed on the other exposed sides, or
(b)
by a flush hinged cover of adequate strength, and adequately supported with attached railings so as to leave only one side of the opening exposed when the cover is open.

DOORWAYS AND EMERGENCY EXITS

Doors
1.68
(1)
Doors shall not open directly onto stairways but shall open onto floors or landings having a width in excess of the swing of the doors.
Double-acting
(2)
Double-acting swing doors shall be designed and installed to permit adequate view through the doors.
Glass doors
(3)
Transparent glass doors and transparent glass panels which extend less than 0.305 m (12 in.) from the floor, and that could be mistaken for doorways, shall be constructed of laminated, tempered or wired safety glass, or fitted with bars or other devices or markings which clearly indicate the presence and position of such doors and panels.
Emergency exits
1.69
(1)
Emergency exits shall be
(a)
unlocked and not blocked by any material,
(b)
designed, marked and located to provide easy and quick egress, and
(c)
provided in areas where the regular exit could be rendered unstable.
Emergency plan
(2)
An emergency plan appropriate to the workplace needs and conditions shall be developed and implemented.
Fire fighting equipment
1.70
(1)
Fire hoses with nozzles, portable fire extinguishers, automatic sprinkler system, hydrants and any other firefighting equipment as required by the National Fire Protection Association shall be provided and maintained for the type of the work being conducted and the particular work place.
Fire extinguishers
(2)
Portable fire extinguishers of an appropriate type, size and quantity shall be provided and maintained
(a)
in every workshop
(b)
at any place used for the storage or handling of combustible material, flammable liquid or explosives,
(c)
in places where welding, cutting or similar operations are being carried out,
(d)
where temporary oil, gas or electric heaters are in operation,
(e)
when operating a tar or asphalt kettle, and
(f)
near the exit of each storey of a building under construction.
Training
(3)
A reasonable number of workers, as determined through a hazard assessment of the workplace, shall be trained in the use, limitations, types and location of the fire extinguishers provided at the workplace.
Inspection of extinguishers
(4)
Fire extinguishers provided at the workplace shall
(a)
contain an appropriate extinguishing agent,
(b)
be refilled or replaced immediately after every use,
(c)
be inspected at least annually and maintained in an operating condition, and
(d)
bear the inspection cards with the name of the inspector and the date of the inspection.

SANITATION AND ACCOMMODATION

1.71
(1)
Workers shall be provided with sufficient clean sanitary toilet facilities, taking into account the nature of the work, the number of workers and the gender of the workers.
(2)
All workers shall be provided with a sufficient quantity of safe fresh drinking water with sanitary appliances for drinking.
(3)
Where the possibility of contamination of food exists, an eating area separate from the work area shall be provided.
(4)
Appropriate facilities for showering and/or changing shall be provided where the nature of the work requires workers to
(a)
change from street clothes to work clothes,
(b)
work in areas where clothes might become contaminated by toxic, noxious, infectious or irritating substances, or
(c)
work in hot, humid, dirty, dusty or wet conditions.