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Yukon Occupational Health RegulationEffective November 1, 1986

1
(1)
These regulations may be cited as the Occupational Health Regulations.
(2)
In these regulations, where a unit of measurement is given in metric (System International d'Unites - SI) the metric unit is binding and if an Imperial unit appears in parentheses after it the Imperial unit is given only as an approximate equivalent for the assistance of the reader.

ILLUMINATION

2
(1)
Proper illumination shall be provided and maintained in accordance with these regulations in every area of a workplace used by employees or other people.
(2)
A safety officer may set in writing a standard in respect to the level and quality of illumination, including emergency lighting, standby lighting, and exterior lighting, in any workplace.
(3)
All lighting systems shall be designed to allow for light depreciation in service in order that the lighting level shall not diminish in service below the acceptable minimums required in these regulations.
(4)
The lighting source shall be shielded to control discomfort glare and the transverse shielding angle shall be not less than 12 degrees; the lighting source shall supply an upward component of not less than 10 per cent, or auxiliary units shall be provided that will direct a comparable amount of light upward, unless a Chief Industrial Safety Officer or Chief Mines Safety Officer directs otherwise.
(5)
The Chief Industrial Safety Officer or the Chief Mines Safety Officer may formulate rules in cases where formulas have not been provided by this regulation or where special circumstances render desirable an alteration to or modifications of the regulations.
(6)
Every employer shall maintain in good working order and in a clean condition any lighting fixture, and a safety officer may direct an employer or owner to clean, repair, relamp, or otherwise maintain any lighting fixture at any time.
(7)
The equipment, machines, or work space allotted to the worker shall be so placed that the worker will not have to face windows or other sources of light of high brightness in close proximity; where windows are a source of glare they shall be adequately shaded or shielded to protect workers' vision.
(8)
So far as reasonably practicable, arrangements shall be made by suitable screening or placing or other effective method, to prevent discomfort or injury by the reflection of light from shiny or mirror-like surfaces into the eyes of the workers.
(9)
Adequate measures shall be taken, so far as reasonably practicable, to prevent the formation of shadows which cause eye fatigue or risk of accident to any worker.
(10)
The minimum level of illumination to be maintained in service in workplaces shall not be less than the values stated in Table 1 below, unless a safety officer directs otherwise:
Table 1. Seeing Tasks
Lux (Footcandles) in Service On Task or 30” Above Floor
(a) Finest precision work
Covering:
Finest Detail
Poor Contrasts,
Long periods of time,
i.e. Extra fine assembly, precision grading,
Extra fine finishing and inspection.
2,153 – 10,764 lx. (200 – 1000 footcandles)
(b) Precision work
Covering:
Fine detail,
Fair contrast,
Lengthy period of time,
i.e. Fine assembly, high-speed work,
Fine finishing and inspection.
1076 lx. (100 footcandles)
(c) Accurate seeing tasks – continuous
Covering:
Fine detail.
Moderate contrasts,
Lengthy periods of time,
i.e. Ordinary bench work and assembly,
Machine shop work,
Medium finishing of parts,
Garment mfg., laundry – spotting & repairs
Food processing, Inspection areas, Printing, Laboratorie
538 lx. (50 footcandles)
(d) Ordinary seeing tasks
Covering:
Moderately fine detail,
Normal contrasts,
Intermittent periods of time,
i.e. Automatic machine operation areas,
Rough grinding, garage work areas,
Continuous processes, packing & shipping areas,
Steel fabrication, welding,
Lunchrooms,
Washrooms,
Foundries,
Sawmills - shingle mills - plywood plants.
323 lx. (30 footcandles)
(e)Casual seeing tasks
i.e. Restrooms,
Stairways, active storage.
(Active storage buildings exempt from provision of shielding)
(f) Simple seeing tasks (exempt from provion of sheilding)
i.e. Hallways, Passageways, Inactive Storage.
54 lx. (5 footcandles)
3
(1)
The brightness ratios in working areas shall not exceed those stipulated in Table 2, unless a safety officer directs otherwise:
Table 2. Brightness Ratios
5 to 1between tasks and adjacent surroundings.
20 to 1between tasks and more remote surfaces.
40 to 1between luminaries (or sky) and surfaces adjacent to them.
80 to 1anywhere within the environment of the worker.
(2)
Reflectance values in industrial working areas shall conform to Table 3 below unless a safety officer directs otherwise.
Table 3. Reflectance Values
Reflection Factor (%)
SurfaceNot Less ThanNot More Than
Ceiling5090
Walls4060
Surface at task level2545
Machine and equipment2545
Floors1020
(3)
The minimum level of illumination to be maintained in service in offices and shops shall not be less than the values stated in Table 4 below, unless a Safety Officer directs otherwise: (see Table 4. Seeing Tasks)
Table 4. Seeing Tasks
Lux (Footcandles) in Service On Task or 30" Above Floor
Very difficult

i.e. Cartography, designing,
drafting, plan reading, timetables
Difficult
2153 lx.
(200 footcandles)
Difficult

i.e. Regular office work involving operation
of business machines, stenography, accounting,
typing, active filing, clerking, billing, continuous
reading and writing tasks. Store checkout counters.
1076 lx.
(100 footcandles)
Ordinary

i.e. Conference and interviewing rooms, washrooms,
inactive filing, switchboard and reception, desk areas
with no office work involved, shop retail sales areas.
323 lx.
(30 footcandles)
Casual seeing tasks

i.e. Restrooms, corridors, stairways.
215 lx.
(20 footcandles)
(4)
The brightness ratios in working areas of offices shall not exceed those stipulated in Table 5 below, unless a Safety Officer directs otherwise:
Table 5. Brightness Ratios
3 to 1between tasks and adjacent surroundings.
10 to 1between tasks and darker surfaces.
20 to 1between luminaires (or windows) and surfaces adjacent to
40 to 1anywhere within the environment of the worker
(5)
Reflectance values in working areas of offices shall conform to Table 6 below, unless a Safety Officer directs otherwise:
Table 6. Reflectance Values
Reflection Factor (%)
SurfaceNot Less ThanNot More Than
Ceiling finishes7090
Walls4060
Furniture2545
Office machines and equipment2545
Floors1530

NOISE CONTROL

4
(1)
When a worker's exposure to steady state noise or impact noise or both exceeds the permissible noise exposure levels the employer shall institute engineering controls to reduce the noise levels to or below the permissible values.
(2)
All persons exposed to excessive noise levels shall be provided with and shall wear a hearing protection device.
(3)
A worker's exposure to steady state and impact noise shall be limited to the following permissible values:
Steady State Noise
Noise Level (dBA)Maximum Daily Exposure Time Without Hearing Protection (Hours)
858
884
912
941
971/2
1001/4
over 1030
Impact Noise
Peak Sound Pressure Level (dB)Maximum Number of Impacts per 24-Hour Period
11814400
1217200
1243600
1271800
130900
133450
136225
139112
14090
over 1400
5
(1)
Where muff type hearing protectors are worn, the worker shall be responsible for wearing hair and personal apparel in such a manner that the muff maintains an effective seal around the ears.
(2)
Workers in any work area shall not wear muff type hearing protectors or headsets which have been designed or modified to accept AM or FM radio or other music sources.
(3)
Subsection (2) does not apply to muff type hearing protectors designed and used for the express purpose of two-way radio or speech communication.
(4)
Every employer shall post and maintain clearly worded warning signs at entrances to, or on the periphery of, areas where persons are exposed to noise levels in excess of the limits specified in these regulations; these signs shall clearly state that a noise hazard exists and shall describe the protective equipment required.
6
(1)
In any place of employment at which workers are exposed to noise in excess of the criteria stated in these regulations, the employer shall be responsible for the establishment and maintenance of an audiometric test program for those workers routinely exposed to noise levels in excess of the following:
(a)
80 dBA steady state noise for 8 hours, or
(b)
impact noise of: (see table)
Peak Sound Pressure Level (dB)Maximum Number of Impacts per 24-Hour Period
over 1350
13590
134112
131225
128450
125900
1221800
1193600
1167200
11314400
(2)
The audiometric testing program shall include the following requirements:
(a)
every worker exposed to noise levels in excess of those listed in subsection (1) shall receive an annual audiometric examination;
(b)
each new worker who will be exposed to noise in excess of levels listed in clause (1) shall receive an audiometric examination within 6 months of the commencement of employment;
(c)
a worker shall receive additional periodic follow-up examinations in any of the following circumstances:
i.
where a worker has been exposed to an unusually loud noise, such as an explosion;
ii.
where an ear infection, head injury, or complaint related to the ear has occurred;
iii.
where an audiogram has been classified as “abnormal change”.
(3)
Each hearing test shall be administered by a physician, an audiologist or a certified audiometric technician.
(4)
Audiometric tests shall be conducted within a facility where the octave band sound pressure levels do not exceed those specified in the following table: (see table)
Octave-Band Centre FrequencyOctave-Band Sound Pressure Level (Decibels)
50030
100030
200035
400042
800045
(5)
Each initial hearing test shall include a personal medical history of the worker; such medical history records shall not be duplicated or copies kept by the employer and shall be maintained confidentially by the Director.
(6)
Every employer conducting an audiometric testing program shall maintain a record of the audiometric test in respect of each worker, and shall keep a record of the test, for so long as the worker remains employed by that employer.
(7)
The authorized tester shall record the hearing tests in a manner set by the Director and submit the test results to the Director; other persons may receive a copy of the test results with the permission of the worker.
Bad XML
i.
where in the opinion of the person conducting the hearing surveillance program the hearing of a worker has been impaired by excessive exposure to sound;
ii.
where audiometric examination of a worker discloses a hearing level in either ear averaging 25 decibels or more at 1,000, 2,000, 3,000 and 4,000 Hertz on a baseline audiogram;
iii.
where audiometric examination of a worker discloses a threshold shift from the baseline audiogram of 15 decibels or more in either ear at any audiometric test frequency from 1,000 Hertz to 6,000 Hertz inclusive;
(8)
the person conducting the audiometric testing program shall within 30 calendar days refer the worker to a supervising physician or to an audiologist engaged by the employer to conduct diagnostic tests and to review the worker’s health history and the assessment of the worker’s exposure to sound.

VENTILATION

7
(1)
Ventilation systems for the control of health hazards shall be designed, constructed and installed in accordance with established engineering principles as published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, "Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice".
(2)
All ventilation systems shall be maintained in good working order.
(3)
An employer may submit to the Director, drawings and specifications of the ventilation system or of any modifications to the ventilation system.
8
(1)
Airborne contaminants shall be controlled at their source by use of an effective local exhaust system; or where this is not practical, general ventilation systems, or a combination of the two shall be used.
(2)
Local exhaust ventilation systems shall be designed so that under normal work procedures a worker is not located between the source of contamination and the exhaust intake.
(3)
Where an exhaust system is installed, provision shall be made for an adequate supply of tempered make-up air. The opening of windows and doors is not adequate for this purpose.
(4)
Ventilation systems shall be designed so that contaminated exhaust air is not recirculated to the work area or other work sites.
(5)
Material or equipment, which will effect the efficiency of the ventilation system, shall not be piled or stored in front of ventilation openings.
(6)
Wherever an operation or work process produces combustible or flammable dusts, vapours, smoke, fumes, or gases in concentrations that may exceed the lower explosive limit of that substance, such operation or work process shall be provided with an appropriate separate exhaust ventilation system.
(7)
When there is a change in a work process, operation, machinery or equipment the ventilation system shall be modified as required to maintain the concentration of airborne contaminants below the levels prescribed in Tables 8 to 13 below.

THERMAL ENVIRONMENT

9
(1)
Every employer shall provide and maintain in every indoor place of employment thermal conditions, including air temperature, radiant temperature, humidity and air movement, which are reasonable and appropriate to the nature of the work performed.
(2)
At every indoor place of employment where the thermal environment is likely to be of discomfort or danger to the workers, the employer shall provide an appropriate and suitably located instrument for measuring the thermal conditions.
(3)
Where it is not reasonably practicable to control thermal conditions pursuant to subsection (1) or where the work is being performed outdoors, the employer shall provide effective protection for the health and safety and reasonable thermal comfort of workers; such protection may include:
(a)
frequent monitoring of thermal conditions;
(b)
special or temporary equipment such as screens, shelters and temporary heating or cooling equipment;
(c)
special clothing or personal protective equipment;
(d)
hot or cold drinks, acclimatization or other physiological procedures;
(e)
limited work schedules with rest and recovery periods, changes in workloads, changes in hours or other arrangements for work;
(f)
any other appropriate measure.

SPACE ALLOTMENT

10
(1)
Every employer shall ensure that no part of the place of employment is overcrowded to a degree that may cause risk of injury to workers.
(2)
Without limiting the generality of subsection (1), the employer shall ensure that there is at least 10 cubic meters (353 cubic feet) of space for each worker employed at any one time in any workroom.
(3)
For the purpose of subsection (2), no space that is more than three meters (10 feet) from the floor and no space occupied by solid objects is to be taken into account.
11
(1)
Where workers have in the course of their work reasonable opportunities for sitting without detriment to their work, the employer shall provide and maintain for their use appropriate seating to enable them to sit.
(2)
Where a substantial portion of any work can properly be done sitting, the employer shall provide and maintain:
(a)
a seat suitably designed, constructed, dimensioned and supported for the worker to do the work; and
(b)
where needed, a footrest which can readily and comfortably support the feet.

HEAT STRESS

12
(1)
Where hot environment work conditions may cause heat disorders in workers employed in such conditions, the employer shall determine and record the thermal index using:
(a)
Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) according to the formulae:

INDOOR OR OUTDOOR WITHOUT SOLAR LOAD:
WBGT = 0.7WB + 0.3GT
OUTDOOR WITH SOLAR LOAD:
WBGT = 0.7WB + 0.2GT + 0.1DB

WHERE:
WB = natural wet-bulb temperature
DB = dry-bulb temperature
GT = globe thermometer temperature, or

(b)
Wet Globe Temperature (WGT).
(2)
Workers shall not be permitted to work continuously when the thermal index, as measured in clause (1), exceeds the following limits: (see table)
Thermal index averaged over a 2 hour period
WORK ACTIVITYLow Air Velocity
(less than 300 fpm or 91 m/min)
High Air Velocity
(above 300 rpm or 91 m/min)
WBGTWGTWBGTWGT
Light Work
Sitting at ease: light hand work
(writing, typing, drafting, bookkeeping);
hand and arm (small bench tools,
assembly, sorting) arm and leg work
(operating foot switch or pedal, driving
a car). Standing: drill press for small
parts; milling machine for small
parts; light power tools; casual walking.
30°C (86°F)26°C (79°F)32°C (90°F)28°C (82°F)
Moderate Work
Hand and arm work (nailing, filing);
arm and leg work (tractors,
construction equipment); air hammer;
heavy assembly; picking fruits and
vegetables.
28°C (82°F)24°C (75°F)31°C (87°F)27°C (81°F)
Heavy Work
Shovelling, sledge hammer work;
sawing, planing; digging; axe work;
pushing or pulling heavy loads;
concrete bl°Ck laying.
26°C (79°F)22°C (72°F)29°C (84°F)25°C (77°F)
(3)
Where the thermal index exceeds the levels in clause (2), the employer shall
(a)
implement engineering methods to reduce the thermal index or isolate the worker from the source of heat, or
(b)
implement work-rest regimes so that the thermal index averaged over the hottest 2 hour period is below that listed in clause (2),
(c)
ensure that the worker is wearing appropriate protective clothing, or
(d)
implement a combination of (a), (b) and (c).
(4)
Where workers are exposed to hot work conditions, the employer shall:
(a)
instruct the workers in the recognition of symptoms of heat disorders including heat exhaustion, dehydration, heat cramps, prickly-heat, and heat stroke, and
(b)
provide an adequate supply of potable water and salt supplement or a 0.1 - 0.2% saline drinking solution.

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

13
(1)
Hazardous chemical substances include the following substances:
(a)
explosives;
(b)
compressed gases;
(c)
flammable liquids;
(d)
flammable solids;
(e)
corrosive substances;
(f)
poisonous and infectious substances;
(g)
oxidizers and organic peroxides;
(h)
radioactives; and
(i)
hot liquids.
(2)
The storage and handling of hazardous chemical substances shall be so controlled as to prevent spillage or accidental lighting of these substances; the following measures shall be taken:
(a)
separating or isolating any chemical substance which when mixed with other substances, may cause a fire or an explosion or may liberate flammable or poisonous gases;
(b)
keeping containers, piping, and other apparatus in good working order; and
(c)
not leaving any spilled substance on the floors or shelves.
14
(1)
Flammable gases such as ammonia, hydrogen, acetylene, and hydrogen sulfide, shall never be stored with oxidizing substances or with gases maintaining combustion such as chlorine, nitrogen tetraoxide, oxygen, and compressed air.
(2)
Compressed gas cylinders shall
(a)
be in accordance with the regulations of the Canadian Transport Commission,
(b)
be labelled and homologated,
(c)
be away from any radiator or other heat sources,
(d)
not be exposed to temperature above 50C (122F),
(e)
be provided with protective caps covering the valves, when not in use,
(f)
be used only for the purposes they were designed,
(g)
not be handled in a manner that could damage them and be fastened upright or held in a cart when being utilized, and
(h)
be stored upright, with the valves on top, and firmly held in place.
15
The storage, handling and use of flammable and combustible liquids, shall be carried out in accordance with the standard Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code NFPA 30-1969.
16
(1)
Corrosive substances shall be stored
(a)
away from areas with high fire hazards,
(b)
away from oxidizing substances,
(c)
protected against direct solar rays, and
(d)
in cool and well ventilated areas.
(2)
Containers for corrosive substances shall be
(a)
kept closed,
(b)
clearly identified,
(c)
handled with care.
(3)
Workers engaged in the handling and decanting of corrosive substances shall wear individual protective equipment as required by the General Safety Regulations.
(4)
If the operations mentioned in subsection (3) are regularly or frequently performed, emergency showers and eye fountains shall be installed in the immediate surroundings.
(5)
Open reservoirs and vats in which corrosive liquids are agitated with compressed air or heated with steam shall be so protected that the operator is not exposed to splashes.
(6)
Level indicators on open reservoirs and vats for corrosive liquids shall be provided with protective screens.
(7)
Reservoirs and tanks containing corrosive liquids shall be provided with an overflow device.

POISONOUS SUBSTANCES

17
(1)
Poisonous substances shall be stored
(a)
away from areas of high fire hazard and from heat sources,
(b)
away from oxidizing substances, and
(c)
in cool and well ventilated areas.
(2)
The cylinders for poisonous gases shall be clearly identified.
(3)
Signs specifying the nature of the danger shall be placed at all entrances to areas containing poisonous gases.
(4)
When poisonous substances that can be absorbed through the skin in harmful quantities are used or handled in open containers
(a)
the workers shall wear personal protective equipment,
(b)
means shall be provided to wash quickly a substance spilled on the skin.
(5)
The workers exposed to poisonous substances shall be advised of the hazards involved and of the protective methods to be used.
(6)
Level indicators for open reservoirs and vats containing poisonous liquids shall be provided with protective screens.
(7)
Reservoirs and tanks containing poisonous liquids shall be provided with an overflow device.
18
(1)
Flammable substances shall be stored
(a)
away from areas with high fire hazards, and
(b)
away from oxidizing substances.
(2)
Spontaneously combustible substances shall be kept
(a)
in an inert liquid,
(b)
in an inert atmosphere, or
(c)
in airtight containers.
(3)
Substances that react with water shall be stored
(a)
in closed containers,
(b)
away from moisture sources, and
(c)
away from sweating or dripping pipes.
(4)
Unstable substances subject to detonation by heat, shock, vibration or sound waves shall be stored separately and well protected.

OXIDIZING SUBSTANCES

19
(1)
Oxidizing substances shall be stored
(a)
away from acids and corrosive liquids with which they may react in an explosive manner,
(b)
away from metallic powders,
(c)
away from organic substances, and
(d)
away from substances which oxidize easily, including wood surfaces.
(2)
Containers of oxidizing substances shall be
(a)
kept closed,
(b)
clearly identified, and
(c)
stored in cool, dry places.
(3)
Any equipment utilized for the process or handling of oxidizing materials shall be grounded.
(4)
Clothes contaminated by oxidizing substances shall be removed immediately and washed before being worn again.
20
(1)
All open containers in which non-corrosive liquids have a temperature exceeding 60C (140F) are agitated or heated, shall have their control devices isolated or guarded by a screen to protect the operator against splashes.
(2)
Level indicators on reservoirs, vats or other containers of hot liquids shall be provided with protective screens.
(3)
Workers engaged in the handling of hot liquids shall wear personal protective equipment.

MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS

21
For the purpose of these regulations
"biological monitoring"
means the recording of a series of medical tests or examinations which indicate the progressing health status of an individual or group of individuals;
"certificate of medical fitness"
means a document that indicates:
  1. the date of the medical examination;
  2. the worker's name, occupation and department or work place;
  3. that the worker is medically
    1. fit,
    2. fit with limitation (limitation to be stated),
    3. unfit temporarily,
    4. unfit permanently;
  4. the signature of the qualified medical practitioner.
22
The employer shall ensure that workers are medically examined whenever
(a)
there is exposure to the dust or fume of lead or its compounds at or above 50% of those limits listed in Table 8; or
(b)
there is exposure to mercury or its compounds at or above 50% of those limits listed in Table 8,
(c)
there is exposure to dust containing 1% or more by weight free silica at or above 50% of those limits listed in Table 10; or
(d)
there is exposure to dust containing asbestos, which when airborne, results in asbestos fibre levels at or above 50% of those limits listed in Table 10,
(e)
there is or there is likely to be any exposure to atmospheric pressures exceeding the ambient atmospheric pressure by 6.9kPa (1 psi),
(f)
any other harmful condition may exist which, in the opinion of the Director, requires medical examinations or medical investigations for workers so exposed.
23
(1)
All medical examinations and medical investigations shall be carried out in compliance with the requirements of these regulations and any other requirements the Director may set.
(2)
The medical practitioner is responsible for advising examined workers as to the nature of the occupational health hazards for which the examination is being carried out and as to the health precautions required.
(3)
After each examination required under this section
(a)
the medical practitioner shall forward to the employer a written certificate of the worker's medical fitness for employment in
i.
the worker’s present or intended occupation, and
ii.
the worker’s present or intended location, and
(b)
each worker examined shall receive without undue delay an oral or written statement of medical fitness as determined by the examination and any biological monitoring tests.
24
Whenever a medical examination reveals that a worker is likely to be peculiarly susceptible to an industrial disease or that a worker has already developed the early signs or symptoms of an industrial disease, then the medical practitioner shall undertake such other medical investigations as may be necessary and shall advise the worker and employer of preventive or remedial actions necessary in the circumstances.
25
No employer shall knowingly employ any worker in any occupation or location when a medical practitioner has advised against such employment.
26
(1)
An individual worker's medical record shall be maintained on a confidential basis under the custody and control of the medical practitioner and shall not be made available to either an employer or any person other than the Director without the consent of the worker.
(2)
Whenever biological monitoring requires a chemical analysis of body fluids, the analysis shall be carried out by a laboratory acceptable to the Director.

AIR CONTAMINANTS

27
(1)
A worker's exposure to airborne contaminants shall be limited to the stated permissible concentrations as specified in the tables and the preambles thereto.
(2)
When there is exposure to a mixture of two or more substances listed in the air contaminant tables, the effects of such exposure shall be considered to be additive, unless it is known otherwise, and the equivalent exposure as computed below shall not exceed unity (1):
E = (C1 / L1 + C2 / L2) + ... (Cn / Ln)
where
E = equivalent exposure to the mixture
C1 = measured time weighted average concentration of first substance etc,
C2 = measured time weighted average concentration of second substance etc,
L1 = the 8-hour time weighted average for first substance
L2 = the 8-hour time weighted average for second substance, etc.
(3)
Substances listed in Table 12 shall not exceed concentrations reducing the available oxygen below 18 per cent by volume in the work place atmosphere or which will present other hazards, such as fire and explosion.
(4)
A worker's exposure to substances listed in Table 7 and Table 14 for periods of time greater than 8 hours in any 24-hour period shall be limited to the modified permissible concentration (M.P.C.) calculated as:
M.P.C. = Permissible Concentration x (8 / h) x ((24 - h) / 16)
where Permissible Concentration are the values listed in Appendix A and B
h = number of hours of exposure on shift.
(5)
When a worker's exposure to air contaminants exceeds permissible concentrations, the employer shall take immediate steps to reduce the worker's exposure to levels at or below the permissible concentration through engineering or administration controls.
(6)
When engineering or administrative controls are not practicable the employer shall provide and the worker shall use personal protective equipment acceptable to the Chief industrial Safety Officer or the Chief Mines Safety Officer as a temporary means to control a worker's exposure to air contaminants, and the employer shall establish and maintain a health surveillance program to ensure that an exposed worker's body burden of harmful substances listed in Table 13 remains below the maximum acceptable levels.
(7)
Clauses (1) and (2) do not apply
(a)
when air contaminant is present in a location or at a time at which human access is impossible, or unnecessary, or not permitted, or
(b)
in temporary or emergency situations or during cleaning and disposal operations, provided that workers involved have been properly trained and protective equipment worn.
28
Where it is necessary for an employer to reduce or contain the level of contamination at any place of employment, preference must be given to methods that do not involve pollution of the environment.

INORGANIC LEAD

29
(1)
The employer shall ensure that each worker who is exposed to the dust or fume of inorganic lead or its compounds at or above 50% of those limits listed in Table 8 is medically examined.
(2)
A worker shall be medically examined within 15 days of the commencement of employment or exposure.
(3)
Additional periodic medical examinations shall be carried out at intervals prescribed by a qualified medical practitioner but in no case shall the interval exceed 5 years.
(4)
Biological monitoring shall include a urinary lead and blood lead analysis which shall be carried out at each medical examination and in accordance with Schedules 1 and 2.
Schedule 1. LEAD IN URINE
(corrected to a Specific Gravity of 1.024)
(Exposure to Inorganic Lead)
Lead in Urine (micrograms/litre)Action Necessary
Less than 150Recheck within 3 months
150 - 200Recheck within 6 weeks
More than 200 (a) Recheck within one month
(b) Blood lead analysis within 15 days and refer to Schedule 2.
2. LEAD IN BLOOD
(Exposure to Inorganic Lead)
Lead in Blood (micrograms/100 millilitres)Action Necessary
Less than 70Recheck within one year
70 - 80 (a) Advise worker of potential danger and corrective measures.
(b) Recheck blood lead within 3 months
More than 80 (a) Immediately reduce lead exposure
(b) Medical interview and recheck blood lead within one month
(c) If symptoms of lead poisoning are absent, consideration of removal of worker from further exposure to lead.
(d) If symptoms of lead poisoning are present, worker shall not be further exposed to lead until sign and symptom free and blood lead is less than 70 micrograms per 100 milliliters of blood.

ORGANIC LEAD

30
(1)
The employer shall ensure that each worker who is exposed to organic lead compounds at or above 50% of those limits listed in Table 8 is medically examined.
(2)
A worker shall be medically examined within 15 days of the commencement of employment or exposure.
(3)
Additional periodic medical examinations shall be carried out at intervals prescribed by a qualified medical practitioner but in no case shall the interval exceed 6 months.
(4)
Biological monitoring shall include a urinary lead analysis which shall be carried out at each medical examination and in accordance with Schedule 3.
Schedule 3. LEAD IN URINE
(corrected to a Specific Gravity of 1.024)
(Exposure to Organic Lead)
Lead in Urine (micrograms/litre)Action Necessary
Less than 140Recheck within one month
140 - 160Reduce exposure and recheck within one week
More than 160 (a) Remove from further exposure
(b) Recheck result within one week
(c) Medical examination within one week
(d) Consideration of return to work.

MERCURY (EXCEPT FOR ALKYL MERCURY COMPOUNDS)

31
(1)
The employer shall ensure that each worker who is exposed to mercury or its compounds, other than the alkyl compounds, at or above 50% of those limits listed in Table 8 is medically examined.
(2)
A worker shall be medically examined within 15 days of commencement of employment or exposure.
(3)
Additional periodic medical examinations shall be carried out at intervals prescribed by a qualified medical practitioner, but in no case shall the interval exceed 2 years.
(4)
Biological monitoring shall include a urinary mercury analysis which shall be carried out at each medical examination and in accordance with Schedule 4.
Schedule 4. MERCURY IN URINE
(corrected to a Specific Gravity of 1.024)
(Except for exposure to Alkyl Mercury Compounds)
Mercury in Urine (micrograms/litre)Action Necessary
Less than 250Recheck within 3 months
250 - 500Recheck within one month and if confirmed reduce further mercury exposure until urinary mercury level is less than 250 micrograms per litre
More than 500 (a) Immediately reduce mercury exposure
(b) Medical interview and recheck urinary mercury within one month
(c) If symptoms of mercury poisoning are absent, consideration of removal of worker from further exposure
(d) If symptoms of mercury poisoning are present, worker shall not be further exposed to mercury until sign and symptom free and urinary mercury is less than 200 micrograms per litre.

ALKYL MERCURY COMPOUNDS

32
(1)
The employer shall ensure that each worker who is exposed to alkyl mercury compounds at or above 50% of those limits listed in Table 8 is medically examined.
(2)
A worker shall be medically examined within 15 days of the commencement of employment or exposure.
(3)
Additional periodic medical examinations shall be carried out at intervals exceed one year.
(4)
Biological monitoring shall include a urinary mercury analysis which shall be carried out at each medical examination and in accordance with Schedule 5.
Schedule 5. MERCURY IN URINE
(corrected to a Specific Gravity of 1.024)
(Exposure to Alkyl Mercury Compounds)
Mercury in Urine (micrograms/litre)Action Necessary
Less than 40Recheck within one month
More than 40 (a) Immediately reduce mercury exposure
(b) Medical interview and recheck within 15 days
(c) If symptoms of mercury poisoning are absent, consideration of removal of worker from further exposure
(d) If symptoms of mercury poisoning are present, worker shall not be further, exposed to mercury until sign and symptom free and urine mercury is less than 20 micrograms per litre

ASBESTOS CONTROL

33
In this regulation
"asbestos"
means chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite, tremolite, anthophyllite and actinolite when in their fibrous form;
"asbestos control contractor"
means an employer certified by an accredited agency as competent in asbestos control;
"FEV"
means forced expiratory volume in 1.0 second;
"FVC"
means forced vital capacity;
"pulmonary function technician"
means a person who has passed a pulmonary function technician course approved by the Director, or has been approved by the Director as having the equivalent of an approved pulmonary function technician course and has passed a requalification examination when requested by the Director;
"HEPA filter"
means high efficiency particulate air filter;
"restricted area"
means an area of a work site in which there is a reasonable potential for worker exposure to airborne asbestos in an amount equal to or greater than 25% of the 8-hour Occupational Exposure Limit, in Table 10.

GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR ASBESTOS CONTROL

34
(1)
A pre-project meeting shall be held between the contractor, the on-site supervisor and an Occupational Health and Safety Officer prior to any work commencing on any asbestos control project.
(2)
Approval for deviation from these regulations may be granted by the Chief Safety Officer prior to the work commencing, provided an acceptable alternate level of protection is provided to the workers.
(3)
A competent worker, certified in asbestos control procedures, must remain on-site at all times during the work process.
(4)
An asbestos control contractor shall ensure:
(a)
The work area is sealed off from all other areas in the building by use of heavy duty polyethylene or similar impermeable material;
(b)
All openings such as doors, windows, and air vents are sealed with polyethylene, taped securely in place;
(c)
All entrances and exits to the restricted area are controlled by triple panel polyethylene air locks;
(d)
A ventilation unit capable of maintaining a 10% negative air pressure must be installed in the work area with HEPA filters on the exhaust side which is outside the work area.
(5)
When unprotected workers are required to be in an area adjacent to a restricted area, continuous instantaneous air sampling shall be conducted in the adjacent area by the asbestos control contractor.
(6)
When all the asbestos has been removed from the site, the asbestos control contractor shall conduct air sampling to ensure a concentration of less than 0.2 fibres per cc has been obtained.
(7)
The asbestos control contractor may remove the polyethylene enclosure after a concentration lower than 0.2 fibres per cc has been obtained.
(8)
As a final clean-up, an asbestos control contractor shall clean all exposed surfaces in the work area by vacuuming, utilizing a vacuum cleaner with a 2-stage HEPA filter.
(9)
Prior to the work area being returned to regular use, an Occupational Health and Safety Officer shall conduct air sampling to ensure the level of asbestos contamination is below the acceptable level (less than 0.2 fibres per cc)
(10)
The asbestos control contractor shall transport all bagged materials to a prearranged sanitary landfill site and ensure it is covered over immediately.

PROCEDURES WITHIN RESTRICTED AREA

35
(1)
The employer shall
(a)
use water containing a wetting agent to soak the asbestos surface;
(b)
removaled containers that are impervious to asbestos and are clearly labelled to indicate the contents and carcinogenic hazard, with a warning that the dust should not be breathed.
(c)
ensure that removal is complete and no asbestos material remains on the surface or on beams, pipes or similar surfaces;
(d)
keep the work site clear of unnecessary accumulations of asbestos waste;
(e)
wet the asbestos for handling where practicable;
(f)
ensure that any cleaning of a restricted area is done by wet sweeping or by use of a vacuum cleaner equipped with a HEPA filter;
(g)
ensure that all asbestos waste is kept, conveyed and disposed of in sealed containers that are impervious to asbestos and are clearly labelled to indicate the contents and carcinogenic hazard, with a warning that the dust should not be breathed.
(2)
Where conditions render it impossible to achieve complete removal, a sealant must be applied by an asbestos control contractor to fix the asbestos to the surface.
(3)
An employer shall ensure all tools and equipment are thoroughly washed or vacuumed prior to being removed from the restricted area.

RESTRICTED AREA

36
An employer shall:
(a)
Limit access to the restricted area to persons authorized by law or the employer;
(b)
Ensure no person shall eat, drink or smoke in a restricted area;
(c)
Ensure that any person entering the restricted area is attired with protective clothing and equipment;
(d)
Post signs at the entrance to, or on the perimeter of a restricted area, indicating that:
i.
asbestos is present;
ii.
access is limited to authorized personnel;
iii.
asbestos is a carcinogen; and
iv.
eating, drinking, and smoking are prohibited.
(e)
Ensure that any person leaving a restricted area is free from asbestos contamination.

DIRECTION TO WORKERS

37
An employer shall, prior to commencing a project, provide direction and instruction to all workers involved in the project outlining
(a)
the health hazards associated with exposure to asbestos fibres and the additional risk when combined with cigarette smoking;
(b)
the requirement to wear the personal protective equipment as outlined by these regulations;
(c)
the use and limitations of the respiratory protection being provided; and
(d)
the work to be performed at the site.

PROTECTION OF WORKERS

38
An employer shall provide:
(a)
a complete change of clothing, including coveralls, caps and rubber boots, for each worker involved in work with asbestos;
(b)
respiratory protection designed to protect against exposure to asbestos fibre;
(c)
sanitary facilities within or close to the restricted area;
(d)
a shower facility to remove all asbestos fibres from the body; and
(e)
goggles, hard hats or other Personal Protective Equipment as required by the General Safety Regulations for the work being performed.

PERSONAL DECONTAMINATION

39
(1)
An employer shall provide at least three separate decontamination chambers for workers to use to ensure that they and their clothing are free of asbestos contamination when they leave the work site.
(2)
An employer shall construct the decontamination chambers, except for the shower, of sufficient size to hold all the workers, their protective clothing and equipment, and their street clothing.
(3)
Every worker shall remove, and store or dispose, all clothing and protective equipment except the respirator while in the first chamber, or transfer room.
(4)
Every worker shall enter the shower with the respiratory equipment still in place.
(5)
After each worker has thoroughly washed their head, face and respirator, they may remove their respirators and discard the used filters.
(6)
In the third chamber, or clean room, workers shall dress in street clothing and store their respirators with new filters installed.
(7)
The employer shall provide facilities within the clean room to store street clothing and to ensure no contamination of street clothing occurs.
(8)
The employer shall ensure:
(a)
reusable protective clothing worn in a restricted area is laundered when necessary and in any event not less frequently than every 3 days of use;
(b)
protective clothing to be laundered is transported from a restricted area in sealed containers that are clearly labelled to indicate the contents and carcinogenic hazard with a warning that dust should not be breathed; and
(c)
used disposable protective clothing and discarded filters are treated as asbestos waste.
(9)
An employer shall construct doors between chambers of triple sheets of polyethylene, opening on alternating sides to ensure as good a seal as reasonably practical between chambers

DIAGRAM 1
Floor Plan For A Typical
Asbestos Removal Or
Encapsulation Work Site

MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS

40
For the purposes of this section "exposed worker" means a worker who, for at least 10 days in a 12-month period, will likely be exposed to airborne asbestos in an amount equal to or greater than 25% of the 8-hour Occupational Exposure Limited in Table 10.
41
(1)
The employer of an exposed worker shall ensure that the worker undergoes a medical assessment within 30 days after the first exposure, and
(a)
not later than every 24 months after the date of the assessment, for the first ten 12-month periods if the worker continues to be an exposed worker for those periods,
(b)
not later than every 12 months after the date of the last assessment conducted under clause (a), for as long as the worker continues to be an exposed worker.
(2)
For the purpose of determining whether a worker is an exposed worker under subsection 41(1) the first 12-month period commences on the date of the worker's first exposure to airborne asbestos.
(3)
A medical assessment shall consist of
(a)
a P.A. chest x-ray on a 35 cm by 43 cm (14" x 17") plate,
(b)
a pulmonary function test, including the spirogram, FEV1 and FVC, all conducted by a pulmonary function technician,
(c)
an assessment of the worker's ability to wear a respiratory protective device, and
(d)
a written history specifying the worker's
i.
occupational exposure to industrial dust and carcinogens,
ii.
respiratory symptoms including dyspnoea, cough, sputum production, wheezing or chest tightness,
iii.
incidence of asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, lung cancer, or other chronic lung disease, and
iv.
smoking history.
(4)
An asbestos control contractor shall bear the cost of providing medical assessments under these regulations.

SILICA

42
(1)
The employer shall ensure that each worker who is exposed to dust containing 1% or more by weight free silica at or above 50% of those limits listed in Table 10 is medically examined.
(2)
A worker shall be medically examined within 30 days of the commencement of employment or exposure.
(3)
Additional periodic medical examination shall be carried out at intervals prescribed by a qualified medical practitioner but in no case shall the interval exceed 3 years.
(4)
Biological monitoring shall include
(a)
the measurement of Forced Expiratory Volume in one second and the Forced Vital Capacity, and
(b)
a chest x-ray on a film approximately 35 x 43 cm (14" x 17"). These tests shall be carried out at each medical examination and at any other time as determined by a qualified medical practitioner; the chest x-ray films shall be interpreted by a physician competent to do so.

RADON GAS

43
In this regulation
"radon daughters"
means the short-lived radioactive decay products of radon­ 222, polonium-218, lead-214, and polonium-214.
"working level" or "WL"
means the amount of any combination of radon daughters in one litre of air that releases 1.3 x 105 mega electron volts of alpha energy during decay to lead-210.
44
The employer shall ensure that airborne concentrations of radon, where workers are exposed, are reduced to levels as low as reasonably practicable.
45
When the working level exceeds one, corrective action shall be taken forthwith.
46
(1)
A plan for regular radiation monitoring of work areas shall be submitted to the Chief Mines Safety Officer prior to commencement of operations.
(2)
All radiation measurements shall be made by utilizing a method approved by the Chief Mines Safety Officer.
(3)
A record of all radiation measurements shall be forwarded to the Chief Mines Safety Officer once per month.
(4)
A copy of the information forwarded to the Chief Mines Safety Officer shall be posted at the workplace at a location convenient to all workers.
TABLE 7
Maximum Acceptable Body Burden
Maximum Concentration
Blood
Ug/100mL
Urine
ug/L
Aresenic501500
Cadmium1035
Lead
     Inorganic80200
     Alkyl compounds-160
Manganese-75
Mercury
     Inorganic-500
     Alkyl compounds-40
Vanadium-150
Selenium-300
Fluoride-5000
Carbon Monoxide0.1as carboxyhaemoglobin
TABLE 8
Permissible Concentrations for
Airborne Contanimant Substances
ppm – parts of vapour or gas per million parts of contaminated air by volume at 25°C and 760 mm mercury pressure.

mg/m3 = approximate milligrams of material per cubic meter of air.
Permissible Concentrations
8-hour Limit15-minute Limit
ppmmg/m3ppmmg/m3
Abate10-20
Acetaldehyde100180150270
Acetic Acid10252543
C Acetic anhydride520--
Acetone1000240012503000
Acetonitrile407060105
Acetylene(See Table 7)
Acetylene dichloride, see 1,2-Dichloroethylene2007902501000
Acetylene tetrabromide1141.2518
Acrolein0.10.250.30.8
Acrylamide - Skin-0.3-0.6
K Acrylonitrile - Skin(See Table 14)
Aldrin - Skin-0.25-0.75
Aliphatic solvent "140 Flash"2515037225
Allyl alcohol - Skin25410
Allyl chloride1326
Allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) - Skin5221044
Allyl propyl disulphide212318
Alundum (Al2O3)(See Table 11)
K 4-Aminodiphenyl - Skin(See Table 15)
2-Aminoethanol, see Ethanolamine3661 2
2-Aminopyridine0.521.56
Ammonia25184030
Ammonium chloride - fume-10-20
Ammonium sulphamate (Ammate)-10-20
n-Amyl acetate100525150780
sec-Amyl acetate125650150810
Aniline (o-, p-isomers) - Skin519519
n-Amyl acetate100525150780
sec-Amyl acetate125650150810
Aniline (o-, p-isomers) - Skin519519
Anisidine (o-, p-isomers) - Skin0.10.50.10.5
Antimony and compounds (as Sb)-0.5-0.75
K Antimony trioxide production (as Sb)(See Table 14)
ANTU (a-Naphthyl thiourea)-0.3-0.9
Argon(See Table 12)
Arsenic and compounds (as As)-0.5-0.5
K Arsenic trioxide production (as As)(See Table 14)
Arsine0.050.20.050.2
K Asbestos (all forms)(See Table 10)
Asphalt (petroleum) fumes-5-10
Atrazine-10-15
Azinphos-methyl - Skin-0.2-0.6
Barium (soluble compounds) (as Ba)-0.5-0.5
Baygon (Propoxur)-0.5-2
K Benzene(See Table 14)
K Benzidine production - Skin(See Table 15)
p-Benzoquinone, see Quinone0.10.40.31.2
Benzoyl peroxide-5-5
K Benz(a)pyrene(See Table 14)
Benzyl chloride1515
K Beryllium(See Table 14)
Biphenyl0.210.21
C Bisphenol A, see Diglycidyl ether (DGE) 0.052.8--
Bismuth telluride-10-20
Bismuth telluride (Selenium doped) -5-10
Boron oxide-10-20
Boron tribromide110330
C Boron trifluoride13--
Bromine0.10.70.32
Bromine pentafluoride0.10.70.32
Bromochloromethane/chlorobromomethane20010502501300
Bromoform - Skin0.550.55
Butadiene (1,3-butadiene)1000220012502750
Butane60014007501600
Butanethiol, see Butyl mercaptan (See Table 9)
2-Butanone200590250740
2-Butoxyethanol (Butyl cellosolve) - Skin 50240150720
n-Butyl acetate150710200950
sec-Butyl acetate2009502501180
tert-Butyl acetate2009502501180
Butyl acrylate10551582
C n-Butyl alcohol - Skin50150--
sec-Butyl alcohol150450150450
tert-Butyl alcohol100300150450
C Butylamine - Skin515--
C tert-Butyl chromate (as CrO3) - Skin -0.1--
n-Butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) 5027075400
n-Butyl lactate525525
Butyl mercaptan(See Table 9)
p-tert Butyltoluene106020120
Cadmium, dust and salts (as Cd) -0.05-0.15
C Cadmium oxide fume (as Cd) -0.05--
K Cadmium oxide production (as Cd) (See Table 14)
Calcium carbonate/marble(See Table 11)
Calcium arsenate (as As)-1-3
Calcium cyanamide-0.5-1
Calcium hydroxide-5-10
Calcium oxide-2-4
Calcium silicate(See Table 11)
Camphor, synthetic212318
Caprolactam -
Dust1-3
Vapour5201040
Captan-5-15
Carbaryl (SevinR) -5-10
Carbofuran (FuradanR) -0.1-0.1
Carbon black-3.5-7
Carbon dioxide500090001500027000
Carbon disulphide - Skin20603090
Carbon monoxide5055400440
Carbon tetrabromide0.11.40.34
Carbon tetrachloride - Skin 106520130
C Carbonyl chloride (phosgene) 0.050.2--
Carbonyl fluoride5151030
Cellulose (paper fibre)(See Table 11)
Cesium hydroxide-2-2
Chlordane - Skin-0.5-1.5
Chlorinated camphene - Skin -0.5-1
Chlorinated diphenyl oxide-0.5-2
Chlorine1339
Chlorine dioxide0.10.30.30.9
C Chlorine trifluoride0.10.4--
C Chloroacetaldehyde13--
a-Chloroacetophenone (Phenacyl chloride) 0.050.30.050.3
Chlorobenzene (Monochlorobenzene) 7535075350
o-Chlorobenzylidene malonitrile - Skin 0.050.40.050.4
Chlorobromomethane/Brom ochloromethane 20010502501300
2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene, see B-Chloroprene - Skin 259035125
Chlorodifluoromethane1000350012504375
Chlorodiphenyl (42% Chlorine) - Skin -1-2
Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine) - Skin -0.5-1
1-Chloro,2,3-epoxy-propane (Epichlorohydrin) - Skin 5201040
2-Chloroethanol (Ethylene chlorohydrin) - Skin 1313
K Chloroethylene (Vinyl chloride) (See Table 14)
K Chloroform (Trichloromethane) (See Table 14)
K bis-Chloromethyl ether(See Table 14)
1-Chloro-1-nitro-propane2010020100
Chloropicrin0.10.70.10.7
B-Chloroprene - Skin259035135
Chlorpyrifos (DursbanR) - Skin -0.2-0.6
o-Chlorostyrene5028575420
o-Chlorotoluene - Skin5025075375
2-Chloro-6-(trichloromethyl pyridine N-serveR) -10-20
Chromic acid and chromates (as CrO3) -0.1-0.1
K Chromite ore processing (chromate) (as Cr) (See Table 14)
Chromium -
Soluble chromic chromous salts (as Cr) -0.5-1.5
Metal and insoluble salts-0.1-3
Clopidol (CoydenR) -10-20
Coal dust(See Table 10)
K Coal tar pitch volatiles (see Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) (See Table 14)
Cobalt metal, dust and fume (as Co) -0.05-0.15
Copper - Fume-0.2-0.2
Dusts and mists (as Cu)-1-2
Corundum (Al2O3) (See Table 11)
Cotton dust raw-0.2-0.6
CragR herbicide -10-20
Cresol, all isomers - Skin522522
Crotonaldehyde26618
Crufomate-5-20
Cumene - Skin5024575365
Cyanide (as CN) - Skin-5-5
Cyanogen10201020
Cyclohexane30010503751300
Cyclohexanol5020050200
Cyclohexanone5020050200
Cyclohexene30010153001015
Cyclohexylamine - Skin10401040
Cyclopentadiene75200150400
2,4-D (2,4-Diphenoxy-acetic acid) -10-20
DDT (Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane) -1-3
DDVP, see Dichlorvos - Skin 0.110.33
Decaborane - Skin0.050.30.150.9
DemetonR - Skin 0.010.10.030.3
Diacetone alcohol (4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2 pentanone) 5024075360
1,2-Diaminoethane, see Ethylenediamine 10251025
Diazinon - Skin-0.01-0.03
Diazomethane0.20.40.20.4
Diborane0.10.10.10.1
K 1,2-Dibromoethane (Ethylene dibromide) - Skin (See Table 14)
DibromR-3-6
2-N-Dibutylaminoethanol - Skin 214428
Dibutyl phosphate15210
Dibutyl phthalate-5-10
C Dichloroacetylene0.10.4--
C o-Dichlorobenzene50300--
75450110675
K 3,3-Dichlorobenzidine - Skin (See Table 15)
Dichlorodifluoromethane1000495012506200
1,3-Dichloro-5,5-dimethyl hydration -0.2-0.4
1,1-Dichloroethane2008102501012
1,2-Dichloroethane5020075300
1,2-Dichloroethylene2007902501000
Dichloroethyl ether - Skin5301060
Dichloromethane, see Methylene chloride 200720200720
Dichloromonofluoromethane50021006252625
C 1,1-Dichloro-1-nitroethane 1060--
1,2-Dichloropropane, see Propylene dichloride 75350115525
Dichlorotetrafluoroethane1000700012508750
Dichlorvos (DDVP) - Skin0.110.33
Dicyclopentadiene530530
Dicyclopentadienyl iron-10-20
Dieldrin - Skin-0.25-0.75
Diethylamine25752575
Diethylaminoethanol - Skin10501050
Diethylene triamine - Skin1414
Diethyl ether, see Ethyl ether 40012005001500
Diethyl phthalate-5-10
Difluorodibromomethane1008601501290
C Diglycidyl ether (DGE)0.52.8--
Dihydroxybenzene, see Hydroquinone -2-3
Diisobutyl ketone2515025150
Diisopropylamine - Skin520520
Dimethoxymethane, see Methylal 1000310012503875
Dimethyl acetamide - Skin10351550
K Dimethyl carbamyl chloride (See Table 16)
Dimethylamine10181018
Dimethylaminobenzene, see Xylidene - Skin 5251050
Dimethylaniline (N,N-Dimethylaniline) - Skin 5251050
Dimethylbenzene, see Xylene - Skin 100435150650
Dimethyl-1,2-dibromo-2 dichloroethyl phosphate, see DibromR-3-6
Dimethylformamide - Skin10302060
2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone, see Diisobutyl ketone 2515025150
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine - Skin 0.5112
Dimethylphthalate-5-10
K Dimethyl sulphate - Skin(See Table 14)
Dinitrobenzene (all isomers) - Skin 0.1510.53
Dinitro-o-cresol - Skin-0.2-0.6
3,5-Dinitro-o-toluamide (ZoaleneR) -5-10
Dinitrotoluene - Skin-1.5-5
Dioxane, tech. grade - Skin 5018050180
Diphenyl, see Biphenyl0.210.63
Diphenylamine-10-20
C Diphenylmethane diisocyanate, see Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) 0.020.2--
Dipropylene glycol methyl ether - Skin 100600150900
Diquat (RegloneR) -0.5-1
Di-sec,octyl phthalate (Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate) -5-10
Disulfiram-2-5
Disyston - Skin-0.1-0.3
2,6-Ditert,butyl-p-cresol-10-20
Dyfonate-0.1-0.1
Emery(See Table 11)
Endosulfan (ThiodanR) - Skin -0.1-0.3
Endrin - Skin-0.1-0.3
K Epichlorohydrin - Skin(See Table 14)
EPN - Skin-0.5-2
1,2-Epoxypropane, see Propylene oxide 100240150360
2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol, see Glycidol 5015075225
Ethane(See Table 12)
Ethanethiol, see Ethyl mercaptan (See Table 9)
Ethanolamine36612
Ethion (NialateR) - Skin -0.4-0.4
2-Ethoxyethanol - Skin100370150560
2-Ethoxyethyl acetate (Cellosolve acetate) - Skin 100540150810
Ethyl acetate40014004001400
Ethyl acrylate - Skin2510025100
Ethyl alcohol (Ethanol)1,000190010001900
Ethylamine10181018
Ethyl sec-amyl ketone (4-Methyl-3-heptanone) 2513025130
Ethyl benzene100435125545
Ethyl bromide2008902501110
Ethylbutyl ketone (3-Heptanone) 5023075345
Ethyl chloride1,000260012503250
Ethyl ether40012005001500
Ethyl formate100300150450
Ethyl mercaptan(See Table 9)
Ethyl silicate1008501501275
Ethylene(See Table 12)
C Ethylene chlorohydrin - Skin 13--
Ethylenediamine10251025
Ethylene dibromide, see 1,2-Dibromoethane 2014530220
Ethylene dichloride, see 1,2-Dichloroethane 5020075300
Ethylene glycol -
Particulate-101020
Vapour100250125325
C Ethylene glycol dinitrate and/or Nitroglycerin - Skin 0.2---
Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (Methyl cellosolve acetate) - Skin 2512035150
Ethylene oxide509075135
Ethylenimine - Skin0.510.5-
Ethylidene chloride, see 1,1-Dichloroethane 2008102501010
C Ethylidene norbornene5251050
N-Ethylmorpholine - Skin20952094
Fensulfothion (DasanitR) -0.1-0.1
Ferbam-10-20
Ferrovanadium dust-1-3
Fluoride (as F)-2.5-2.5
Fluorine1224
Fluorotrichloromethane1000560012507000
C Formaldehyde23--
Formamide20303045
Formic acid5959
Furfural - Skin5201560
Furfuryl alcohol - Skin5201040
Gasoline(See Table 9)
Germanium tetrahydride0.20.60.61.8
Glass, fibrous or dust(See Table 11)
Glutaraldehyde, activated or unactivated -0.25--
Glycerin mist(See Table 11)
Glycidol (2,3-Epoxy-1 propanol) 5015065190
Glycol monoethyl ether, see 2-Ethoxyethanol - Skin 100370150560
Graphite (synthetic)(See Table 11)
GuthionR, see Azinphos methyl - Skin -0.2-0.6
Gypsum(See Table 11)
Hafnium-0.5-1.5
Helium(See Table 12)
Heptachlor - Skin-0.5-1.5
Heptane (n-Heptane)40016005002000
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene0.010.110.030.33
Hexachloroethane - Skin110330
Hexachloronaphthalene - Skin -0.2-0.6
Hexafluoroacetone0.10.70.32.1
Hexane (n-hexane)100360125450
K Hexamethyl phosphoramide - Skin (See Table 16)
2-Hexanone, see Methyl butyl ketone - Skin 2510040150
Hexone (Methyl isobutyl ketone) - Skin 100410125510
sec-Hexyl acetate5030050300
K-Hydrazine - Skin(See Table 16)
Hydrogen(See Table 12)
Hydrogenated terphenyls0.550.55
Hydrogen bromide310310
C Hydrogen chloride57--
Hydrogen cyanide - Skin10111516
Hydrogen fluoride3232
Hydrogen peroxide11.522.8
Hydrogen selenide0.050.20.050.2
Hydrogen sulphide10151527
Hydroquinone-2-3
Indene10451570
Indium and compounds (as In) -0.1-0.3
C Iodine0.7111
Iodoform0.230.46
Iron oxide fume (as Fe2O3) -5-10
Iron pentacarbonyl0.010.080.010.08
Iron salts, soluble (as Fe) -1-2
Isoamyl acetate100525125655
Isoamyl alcohol100360125450
Isobutyl acetate150700187875
Isobutyl alcohol5015075225
C Isophorone525--
Isopropyl acetate2509503101185
Isopropyl alcohol - Skin4009805001225
Isopropylamine5121024
Isopropyl ether25010503101320
Isopropyl glycidyl ether (IGE) 5024075360
Kaolin(See Table 11)
Ketene0.50.91.52.7
Lead, inorganic, fumes and dusts (as Pb) -0.15-0.45
Lead arsenate (as Pb)-0.15-0.45
K Lead chromate (as Cr)(See Table 14)
Limestone(See Table 11)
Lindane - Skin-0.5-1.5
Lithium hydride-0.025-0.025
L.P.G. (Liquified petroleum gas) 1,000180012502250
Magnesite(See Table 11)
Magnesium oxide fume (as Mg) -10-10
Malathion - Skin-10-10
Maleic anhydride0.2510.251
C Manganese and compounds (as Mn) -5--
Manganese cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl (as Mn) - Skin -0.1-0.3
Marble/calcium carbonate(See Table 11)
Mercury (Alkyl compounds) Skin (as Hg) 0.0010.010.0030.03
Mercury (all forms except Alkyl) (as Hg) -0.05-0.15
Mesityl oxide2510025100
Methane(See Table 12)
Methanethiol, see Methyl mercaptan (See Table 9)
Methoxychlor 2-Methoxyethanol - Skin -10-10
(Methyl cellosolve)258035120
Methyl acetate200610250760
Methyl acetylene (propyne)1000165012502050
Methyl acetylene propadiene mixture (MAPP) 1000180012502250
Methyl acrylate - Skin10351035
Methylacrylonitrile - Skin1326
Methylal (dimethoxymethane) 1000310012503875
Methyl alcohol (methanol) - Skin 200260250310
Methylamine10121012
Methyl amyl alcohol, see Methyl isobutyl carbinol - Skin 2510040150
Methyl 2-cyanoacrylate28416
Methyl isoamyl ketone100465150710
Methyl n-amyl ketone (2-Heptanone) 100465150710
Methyl bromide - Skin15601560
Methyl butyl ketone, see 2-Hexanone - Skin 2510040150
Methyl cellosolve - Skin, see 2-Methoxyethanol 258035120
Methyl cellosolve acetate - Skin, see Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate 2512035150
Methyl chloride100210125260
Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-Trichloroethane) 35019004402400
Methylcyclohexane40016005002000
Methylcyclohexanol5023575350
o-Methylcyclohexanone - Skin 5023075345
Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (as Mn) - Skin 0.10.20.30.6
Methyl demeton - Skin-0.5-1.5
C Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) 0.020.2--
Methylene chloride (dichloromethane) 200700250870
K 4,4'-Methylene(bis(2 chloroaniline) - Skin (See Table 14)
C Methylene bis(4 cyclohexylisocyanate) 0.010.11--
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), see 2-Butanone 200590250740
C Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide 0.21.5--
Methyl formate100250150375
Methyl iodide - Skin5281056
Methyl isoamyl ketone100475150710
Methyl isobutyl carbinol - Skin 2510040150
Methyl isobutyl ketone, see Hexone - Skin 100410125510
Methyl isocyanate - Skin0.020.050.020.05
Methyl mercaptan(See Table 9)
Methyl methacrylate100410125510
Methyl parathion - Skin-0.2-0.6
Methyl propyl ketone, see 2-Pentanone 200700250875
N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone100400125500
C Methyl silicate530--
C a-Methyl styrene100480--
Mineral wool(See Table 11)
Molybdenum (as Mo)
Soluble compounds-5-10
Insoluble compounds-10-20
Monomethyl aniline - Skin29418
Cc Monomethyl hydrazine - Skin 0.20.35--
Morpholine - Skin207030105
Naphtha (coal tar)40018005002250
Naphthalene10501575
K B-Naphthylamine(See Table 16)
a-Naphthylthiourea (ANTU)-0.3-0.9
Neon(See Table 12)
C Nickel carbonyl0.050.35--
Nickel metal and insoluble compounds (as Ni) -1-3
Nickel, soluble compounds (as Ni) -0.10.3
K Nickel sulphide roasting, fume and dust as (Ni) (See Table 14)
Nicotine - Skin-0.5-1.5
Nitric acid25410
Nitric oxide25303545
p-Nitroaniline - Skin16212
Nitrobenzene - Skin15210
p-Nitrochlorobenzene - Skin -1-2
K 4-Nitrodiphenyl(See Table 15)
Nitroethane100310150465
Nitrogen(See Table 12)
C Nitrogen dioxide59--
Nitrogen trifluoride10291545
Nitroglycerin - Skin0.220.22
Nitromethane100250150375
1-Nitropropane259035135
K 2-Nitropropane(See Table 14)
K N-Nitrosodimethylamine (dimethylnitrosoamine) - Skin (See Table 16)
Nitrotoluene - Skin5301060
Nitrotrichloromethane, see Chloropicrin 0.10.70.10.7
Nonane20010502501300
Octachloronaphthalene - Skin -0.1-0.3
Octane30014503751800
Oil mist, mineral-5-10
Osmium tetraoxide (as Os)0.00020.0020.00060.006
Oxalic acid-1-2
Oxygen difluoride0.050.10.150.3
Ozone0.10.20.30.6
Paraffin wax fume-2-6
Paraquat, respirable sizes-0.5-0.5
Parathion - Skin-0.1-0.3
K Particulate polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PPAH) (as benzene solubles) (See Table 14)
Pentaborane0.0050.010.0150.03
Pentachloronaphthalene-0.5-1.5
Pentachlorophenol - Skin-0.5-1.5
Pentaerythritol(See Table 11)
Pentane60018007502250
2-Pentanone200700250875
Perchloroethylene - Skin1006701501000
Perchloryl fluoride314628
Phenol - Skin5191038
Phenothiazine - Skin-5-10
p-Phenylene diamine - Skin-0.1-0.1
Phenyl ether (vapour)17214
Phenyl ether-Diphenyl mixture (vapour) 1721 4
Phenylethylene, see Styrene, monomer 100420125525
Phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE)± 10601590
Phenyl mercaptan310310
Phenylhydrazine - Skin5221044
C Phenylphosphine0.050.25--
Phorate (ThimetR) - Skin-0.05-0.15
Phosdrin (MevinphosR) - Skin 0.010.10.030.3
Phosgene (carbonyl chloride) 0.10.40.31.2
Phosphine0.30.411
Phosphoric acid-1-3
Phosphorus (yellow)-0.1-0.3
Phosphorus pentachloride-1-3
Phosphorus pentasulphide-1-3
Phosphorus trichloride0.530.53
C Potassium hydroxide-2--
Propane(See Table 12)
K B-Propiolactone(See Table 16)
Propargyl alcohol - skin1236
n-Propyl acetate2008402501050
Propyl alcohol - Skin200500250625
n-Propyl nitrate2511040140
Propylene(See Table 12)
Propylene dichloride (1,2 Dichloropropane) 75350115525
C Propylene glycol dinitrate 0.22--
Propylene glycol monomethyl ether 100360150450
Propylene imine - Skin2525
Propylene oxide100240150360
Propyne, see Methyl acetylene 1000165012502050
Pyrethrum-5-10
Pyridine5151030
Quinone0.10.40.31
RDXR - Skin-1.5-3
Resorcinol10452090
Rhodium
Metal fume and dusts (as Rh) -0.1-0.3
Soluble salts (as Rh)-0.001-0.003
Ronnel-10-10
Rosin core solder pyrolysis products (as formaldehyde) -0.1-0.3
Rotenone (commercial)-5-10
Rouge(See Table 11)
Rubber solvent (Naphtha)40018005002250
Selenium compounds (as Se)-0.2-0.2
Selenium hexafluoride (as Se) 0.050.40.050.4
SevinR, see Carbaryl-5-10
Silane, see Silicon tetrahydride 0.50.711.5
Silicon(See Table 11)
Silicon carbide(See Table 11)
Silicon tetrahydride (Silane) 0.50.711.5
Silver, metal and soluble compounds (as Ag) -0.01-0.03
C Sodium azide0.10.3--
Sodium fluoroacetate (1080) -0.05-0.15
C Sodium hydroxide-2--
"60 Solvent"100450125560
"70 Solvent"5030075450
Starch(See Table 11)
Stibine0.10.50.31.5
Stoddard solvent100575150720
Strychnine-0.15-0.45
C Succinaldehyde (Glutaraldehyde) -0.25--
Styrene, monomer (Phenylethylene) 100420125525
C Subtilisins (Proteolytic enzymes as 100% pure crystalline enzyme) -0.00006--
Sucrose(See Table 11)
Sulphur dioxide513513
Sulphur hexafluoride1000600012507500
Sulphuric acid-1-1
Sulphur monochloride16318
Sulphur pentafluoride0.0250.250.0750.75
Sulphur tetrafluoride0.10.40.31
Sulphuryl fluoride5201040
Systox, see DemetonR - Skin 0.010.10.030.3
2,4,5-T-10-20
Tantalum-5-10
TEDP - Skin-0.2-0.6
TeflonR decomposition products (as Fluorine) -2.5-5
Tellurium and compounds (as Te) -0.1-0.1
Tellurium hexafluoride (as Te) 0.02-0.02-
TEPP - Skin0.0040.050.0120.15
C Terphenyls19--
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloro-2,2 difluoroethane 50041706255210
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1,2 difluoroethane 50041706255210
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane - Skin 5351070
Tetrachloroethylene, see Perchloroethylene - Skin 1006701501000
Tetrachloromethane, see Carbon Tetrachloride - Skin 106520130
Phthalic anhydride16424
Picloram (TordonR)-10-20
Picric acid - Skin-0.1-0.3
PivalR (2-Pivalyl-1,3 indandione) -0.1-0.3
Plaster of Paris(See Table 11)
Platinum (soluble salts) (as Pt) -0.002-0.002
Polychlorobiphenyls, see Chlorodiphenyls - Skin ----
Polytetrafluoroethylene decomposition products (as Fluorine) 22.5-5
Portland cement(see Table 11)
Tetrachloronapthalene-2-4
Tetraethyl lead (as Pb) - Skin -0.1-0.3
Tetrahydrofuran200590250700
Tetramethyl lead (as Pb) - Skin -0.15-0.45
Tetramethyl succinonitrile - Skin 0.531.59
Tetranitromethane1818
Tetryl (2,4,6,trinitrophenylmethylnitramine) - Skin -1.5-3
Thallium, soluble compounds (as Tl) - Skin -0.1-0.1
4,4'-Thiobis(6-tert-butyl-m cresol) -10-20
Thioglycolic acid15210
ThiramR-5-10
Tin, inorganic compounds, except SnH4 and SnO3 (as Sn) -2-4
Tin, organic compounds (as Sn) - Skin -0.1-0.2
Tin oxide (as Sn)(See Table 11)
Titanium dioxide (as Ti)(See Table 11)
Toluene (toluol) - Skin100375150560
C Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) 0.020.14--
o-Toluidine5221044
Toxaphene, see Chlorinated camphene - Skin -0.5-1.5
Tributyl phosphate-5-5
C 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene540--
1,1,1,-Trichloroethane, see Methyl chloroform 35019004402400
1,1,2-Trichloroethane - Skin 10452090
Trichloroethylene100535150800
K Trichloromethane, see Chloroform (See Table 14)
Trichloronaphthalene-5-10
1,2,3-Trichloropropane5030075450
1,1,2-Trichloro 1,2,2 trifluoroethane 1000760012509500
Triethylamine2510040150
Tricyclohexyltin hydroxide (PlictranR) -5-10
Trifluoromonobromo methane1000610012007625
Trimethyl benzene2512035180
Trimethyl phosphite0.52.61.57.8
2,4,6-Trinitrophenol, see Picric acid - Skin -0.1-0.3
2,4,6-Trinitrophenyl methylnitramine, see Tetryl - Skin -1.5-3
C 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) -0.5--
Triorthocresyl phosphate-0.1-0.3
Triphenyl phosphate-3-6
Tungsten and compounds (as
Soluble-1-3
Insoluble-5-10
Turpentine100560150840
Uranium (natural) soluble and insoluble compounds (as U) -0.2-0.6
Vanadium (V2O5) (as V) - Dust -0.5-1.5
C Fume-0.05--
Valeraldehyde5017575262
Vegetable oil mist(See Table 11)
Vinyl acetate10302060
Vinyl benzene, see Styrene100420125525
Vinyl bromide25011002501100
K Vinyl chloride(See Table 14)
Vinyl cyanide, see Acrylonitrile - Skin 20453070
Wood dust (nonallergenic)-5-10
Wood dust (allergenic)(See Table 10)
Vinyl toluene100480150720
Warfarin-0.1-0.3
Welding fumes-5-5
Xylene (o-, m-, p-isomers) - Skin 100435150650
C m-Xylene a,a'-diamine-0.1--
Xylidene - Skin5251050
Yttrium-1-3
Zinc chloride fume-1-2
K Zinc chromate (as Cr)(See Table 14)
Zinc oxide fume-5-10
Zinc oxide dust(See Table 11)
Zinc stearate(See Table 11)
Zirconium compounds (as Zr) -5-10
TABLE 9
Air Contaminants
Permissible Concentrations
Substanceppmmg/m3ppmmg/m3
8 hour Limit15-minute Limit
C Butyl mercaptan39.3--
C Ethyl mercaptan37.6--
C Methyl mercaptan35.9--
Wood dust, allergenic (e.g., cedar, mahogany, teak)-2.5-5
Gasoline2500625-
 
Permissible Concentrations
SubstanceImpingerb (mppef)Respirable Massc (mg/m3)
Foundry dust:
     Silica sand
51.2d
Olivine sand53.3d
TABLE 10
Mineral Dusts


(Each substance must comply with at least one of the relevant requirements as determined by the air sampling technique used).
Permissible Concentrations(Fibres per mL)a
Substance8 hour limit15 minute limit
Asbestos:
     Amosite0.22
     Chrysotile0.55
     Crocidolite0.1-
     Tremolite0.55
Talc (fibrous)0.55
Column IColumn IIColumn III
KONIMETERb (Particles/mL)IMPINGERc (mmppcf)RESPIRABLE MASSd (mg/m3)
Silica:
Quartz, crystalline300(e)(g)
Cristobalite150(f)(1/2 quartz value)
Tridymite150(f)(1/2 quartz value)
Silica, fused or flour300(e)(quartz value)
Tripoli300(e)(quartz value)
Silica, amorphous300202
Diatomaceous earth300201.5
Silicates:
Mica-20-
Mineral wool fibre--10
Perlite-30-
Portland Cement-30-
Soapstone-20-
Talc (nonasbestos form)-20-
Graphite-20-
Coal--2
TABLE 11
Nuisance Dust, Mists and Fumes


(Each substance contained in this table must comply with at least one of the relevant requirements).
PERMISSIBLE CONCENTRATIONS
8 hour Limit15-minute Limit
Impinger* (mppcf)Gravimetric (mg/m3)Gravimetric (mg/m3)
Alundum (Al2O3)301020
Calcium carbonate301020
Calcium silicate3010-
Cellulose (paper fibre)301020
Corundum (Al2O3)3010-
Emery301020
Glass, fibrous or dust30b10-
Glycerine mist3010-
Graphite (synthetic)3010-
Gypsum301020
Kaolin301020
Limestone301020
Marble301020
Magnesite301020
Mineral wool fibre3010-
Pentaerythritol301020
Plaster of Paris301020
Portland Cement301020
Rouge301020
Silicon301020
Silicon carbide301020
Starch301020
Sucrose301020
Tin oxide301020
Titanium dioxide301020
Zinc oxide dust301020
Vegetable oil mists (except castor, cashew nut, or similar irritating oils) -10-
Zinc stearate301020
TABLE 12
ASPHYXIANT SUBSTANCES WHICH MUST BE CONTROLLED TO ENSURE THAT NO ATMOSPHERE IS OXYGEN DEFICIENT (LESS THAN 18% OXYGEN) AT ANY TIME
Acetylene
Argon
Ethane
Ethylene
Helium
Hydrogen
Methane
Neon
Nitrogen
Propane
Propylene
TABLE 13.
MAXIMUM ACCEPTABLE BODY BURDENS
SubstanceMaximum Concentration
Blood (ug/100ml)Urine (ug/l*)
Arsenic501500
Cadmium1035
Lead inorganic80200
     alkyl compounds-160
Manganese-75
Mercury inorganic-500
     alkyl compounds-40
Vanadium-150
Selenium-300
Fluoride-5000**
Carbon Monoxide10% as carboxyhaemoglobin-
TABLE 14
Carcinogens with a Permitted Exposure
SubstancePermissible Concentrations
8-hour Limit
ppmmg/m3
Antimony trioxide production (as SB)-0.5
Arsenic trioxide production -
As2O3 (as As)-0.05
SO2C5-
Acrylonitrile2045
BenzeneC1032
Beryllium-0.002
Cadmium oxide production (as Cd)-0.05
Chloroethylene (vinyl chloride)12.5
Chloroform (trichloromethane)1050
bis-Chloromethyl ether0.001-
Chromite ore processing (chromate), as Cr0.10.1
1,2-Dibromoethane20145
Dimethyl sulphate-Skin15
Epichlorohydrin520
Hydrazine0.10.1
Lead chromate (as Cr)-0.05
4,4'-Methylene bis (2-chloroaniline) - Skin0.020.02
Nickel sulfide roasting (fume and dust) as Ni-1
2-Nitropropane25-

Carcinogens
A carcinogen is an agent which when absorbed into or onto the body may initiate uncontrolled cell growth. These substances listed in this Appendix are used in industry and have proven carcinogenic in man or have induced cancer in animals under appropriate experimental conditions.

TABLE 15
Carcinogens With No Permitted Exposure

No exposure or contact means isolating the process or operation by the best practical engineering methods. The worker should be equipped with personal protective equipment to ensure virtually no contact with the carcinogen.

4-Aminodiphenyl - Skin3,3-Dichlorobenzidine - Skin
Benzidine production - Skin4-Nitrodiphenyl
TABLE 16

Carcinogens With No Established Permitted Concentration. Exposure to be carefully controlled and minimized.

Benzo(oo)pyreneDimethyl carbamyl chloride
Hexamethyl phosphoramide - SkinB-Naphthylamine
B-PropiolactoneN-Nitrosodimethylamine (dimethylnitrosoamine) - Skin