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Radiation ProtectionEffective November 1, 1986

1
These regulations may be cited as the Radiation Protection Regulations.
2
In these regulations
"owner"
means any person
  1. who alone or jointly or severally with others has apparent ownership or control of any x-ray equipment or source, laser equipment or laser apparatus,
  2. who alone or jointly or severally with others has apparent possession of any premises or vehicle in which any x-ray equipment or source, laser equipment or laser apparatus is kept, or
  3. who is responsible to the owner or owners as a superintendent or manager for the control of any x-ray equipment or source, laser equipment or laser apparatus, or for the premises or vehicle in which any laser equipment or laser apparatus is kept;
"rad"
means a unit of dose which is realized when 100 ergs of energy have been absorbed per gram of material;
"student"
means a person who is undergoing training in which the use of x-ray is required.

GENERAL OBLIGATIONS OF OWNERS AND USERS

3
Every person who becomes an owner of an x-ray machine, a source that is not an x-ray machine, or laser equipment shall complete and deliver Form A to the Director within 30 days of becoming an owner.

INSTALLATION OF RADIATION EQUIPMENT

4
(1)
All installations of radiation equipment shall be made in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer, using the "Recommended Safety Procedures for Installation and Use" published by the Department of National Health and Welfare as a minimum standard.
(2)
If requested by the Director, the owner of an x-ray machine shall provide drawings of the intended installation and those drawings shall
(a)
identify the owner of the x-ray machine and the owner of the premises,
(b)
show the proposed location of the x-ray machine,
(c)
indicate the occupancy of adjacent rooms, offices or other accommodation, including those above and below the space in which the x-ray machine is to be installed, and
(d)
indicate the additional structural shielding to be installed on the boundaries of the space in which the x-ray machine is to be installed.
5
(1)
Every installation of an x-ray machine shall be shielded with a primary protective barrier and a secondary protective barrier so that no x-ray worker receives a whole body dose equivalent of more than 100 millirad per week.
(2)
Where lead shielding is used as a barrier, it shall be mounted in such a manner as to avoid sagging or damage.
(3)
Windows, doors, joints between different material, and other openings shall be so constructed that they meet the same protection standards referred to in subsection (1).
(4)
All doors leading directly into an x-ray room shall be fitted with self-closing devices and shall have warning signs prominently displayed to alert persons to the presence of x-rays.
6
(1)
Every vendor of radiation equipment and associated apparatus shall, after it is installed or otherwise placed in the operator's premises and before it is certified as being operable, complete an inspection of its electrical and mechanical components and notify the Director of the inspection.
(2)
Where radiation equipment and associated apparatus has, subsequent to its manufacture, been discovered to be hazardous and as a result it has been necessary to remove or replace any assembly or components, the supplier of the radiation equipment and associated apparatus shall notify the Director in writing specifying
(a)
the name and mailing address of the supplier.
(b)
the name and address of the owner to whom the equipment is about to be or has been transferred,
(c)
the identification and brand name of the equipment,
(d)
the model and serial number or other identification number of the equipment, and
(e)
the action, if any, which have been taken by the supplier to remove from operation or to retrofit the assembly or equipment.

MAINTENANCE OF RADIATION EQUIPMENT

7
An owner of an x-ray machine shall ensure the machine is maintained in safe operating condition.
8
(1)
Every owner of an x-ray machine shall make arrangements for regular inspection of the equipment, in a manner and to a degree in keeping with the manufacturer's recommendations.
(2)
A copy of the inspection report, with documentation of any maintenance work performed on the equipment, shall be retained on the premises.

PROHIBITED RADIATION EQUIPMENT

9
No person shall operate any x-ray equipment unless it is being used for its intended purpose.

RADIATION EXPOSURE AND DOSE LIMITS

10
(1)
When requested by the Director, and on the advice of a qualified medical practitioner, the owner of an x-ray machine or source shall arrange for the medical examination of an x-ray worker employed by the owner, at the expense of the owner.
(2)
The examination by a qualified medical practitioner shall include such tests as he or she may consider necessary.
11
(1)
The dose of ionizing radiation received by an x-ray worker, radiation technician in training, or student shall be systematically checked
(a)
in the case of x or gamma radiation exposure, by a film badge or pocket ionization chamber, and
(b)
in the case of low energy beta rays, neutrons, alpha rays, or other corpuscular radiation, by onsite monitoring or other procedure acceptable to the Director.
(2)
Every person employing an x-ray worker or in charge of training being received by a radiation technician in training or student shall maintain a separate cumulative record on a continuous permanent basis for each of such workers, radiation technicians in training, or students indicating
(a)
the extent to which the worker, radiation technicians in training, or student has been exposed to ionizing radiation,
(b)
all previous radiation exposure history received from any radioactive substances deposited within the body of the worker, radiation technicians in training, or student, and
(c)
the results of any evaluation of doses received from any radioactive substances deposited within the body of the worker, radiation technicians in training, or student.
(3)
Records maintained under subsection (2) shall be available to examination upon the request of the Director.
(4)
An x-ray worker, trainee, or student shall assist in making previous radiation exposure history available for the purpose of subsection (2).
(5)
The owner of an x-ray machine shall ensure that personal dosimeters are worn by all x-ray workers while performing their duty.
12
(1)
An x-ray worker, radiation technician in training or student who knows or suspects that she is pregnant shall report such fact or suspicion to her employer or the person in charge of her training.
(2)
If a pregnant person wants to continue in employment or training, the employer together with the pregnant person, shall reassess and revise as indicated the employment duties or educational activities, as the case may be, so that the maximum permissable dose of .1 rad per month during the remaining period of pregnancy is not exceeded.
13
An x-ray worker, a radiation technician in training, or a student shall not be exposed to ionizing radiation in excess of the maximum permissible dose outlined in Table 1.
14
A person in charge of an experiment or teaching demonstration in which radiation equipment is being used shall so plan the experiment or demonstration that a person exposed to radiation from such equipment during the experiment or demonstration shall not receive more than ten millirad.

NOTICE OF INCIDENTS, LOSSES, OVEREXPOSURES

15
Where there is an occurrence of an unusual incident, a loss, or an overexposure resulting from the use, storage, or transportation of an x-ray machine or source, the owner or operator shall immediately notify the Director in writing specifying
(a)
the date and location at which it occurred,
(b)
the manufacture, type, and model number of the equipment or source involved,
(c)
the names and numbers of persons involved or affected, and the nature and magnitude of their injuries,
(d)
the circumstances surrounding the incident, loss or overexposure, and its causes, and
(e)
the actions, if any, which have been taken by the owner or operator to control, correct, or eliminate the causes, and to prevent a recurrence.

CODE OF PRACTICE

16
(1)
An owner of an x-ray machine or source shall develop a written code of practice for the safe operation of the equipment.
(2)
The code of practice shall include details of the safe operation of the equipment, the protective procedures to be followed, the use of protective equipment, and the procedures to be followed in the event of an incident, loss or overexposure.
(3)
The code of practice shall be posted near the operating controls of the equipment or given individually to each worker.
17
(1)
Owners of an x-ray machine or source shall, prior to permitting an x-ray worker to operate the equipment, provide the worker with instruction on the safe operation of the equipment, familiarize the worker with the established of code of practice, and satisfy themselves that their instructions are understood by the worker.
(2)
Every x-ray worker shall adhere to the code of practice established at the work place and other safety instruction given by the owner.
18
The code of practice may be up-graded as required and the workers will be advised of the change and retrained in the procedure.

ELIGIBILITY FOR X-RAY TRAINING AND OPERATION

19
An owner of an x-ray machine or source shall not employ as an x-ray worker any person
(a)
who is under the age of eighteen, unless that person is undergoing a course in training where knowledge of x-rays is required and is under the direct supervision of an x-ray worker,
(b)
who is pregnant, unless the owner limits the dose receivable in accordance with the table contained in Table 1, or
(c)
who has been found by a qualified medical practitioner to be unfit for such employment.
20
No person shall operate an x-ray machine or source unless the person
(a)
has successfully completed an appropriate course of instruction and is certified in accordance with the standards established by the Canadian Government Specifications Board, or
(b)
is in training under the direct supervision of a qualified x-ray worker.

LASER OPERATIONS

21
(1)
Owners of laser equipment shall develop a written code of practice for the safe operation of the equipment.
(2)
The code of practice shall be provided to and discussed with each employee and employers shall satisfy themselves that it is fully understood by the employees.
(3)
The code of practice shall make reference to these regulations and shall include the following items:
(a)
a provision that all laser work shall be discussed with the person designated to ensure that the code of practice is followed;
(b)
a provision that all persons engaged in laser work shall be medically examined before engaging in laser work and at such other times as may be considered necessary in accordance with the provisions of section 22 of these regulations;
(c)
a requirement that an accurate log be kept of all laser operations which shall include the names of all those engaged on the work;
(d)
a clear definition of the laser working area;
(e)
a requirement that access to the defined laser working area be restricted to only essential personnel;
(f)
a requirement that the working area be screened from all other areas and that warning lights be placed so as to indicate when laser equipment or laser apparatus is in operation or is being tested;
(g)
a requirement that all laser work shall be carried out in areas with high intensity background illumination;
(h)
a requirement that "free field" laser operation must be restricted;
(i)
a requirement that all laser operations must be "beam terminated" at a suitable material;
(j)
a requirement that safety spectacles appropriate to the type of emission must be worn in the area at all times;
(k)
an instruction to all personnel not to look into the primary beam or into its specular reflection even when wearing protective glasses;
(l)
a requirement that precautions must be taken to prevent electric shock;
(m)
a requirement that all personnel engaged in laser work must be instucted in resuscitative procedures;
(n)
a requirement that all visual disturbances, after-images, burns and skin eruptions must be reported to the person in charge of the operation;
(o)
a requirement that any of the incidents or accidents referred to in clause (n) must be recorded;
(p)
a requirement that all personnel must be made fully aware of the hazards of the work pursuant to section 23 and must be instructed in emergency procedures;
(q)
instructions to ensure compliance with section 25.
22
(1)
All persons who will be engaged in work with laser equipment or laser apparatus shall be medically examined prior to being engaged in such work.
(2)
The findings of the medical examination shall be recorded.
(3)
The medical examination shall include a report from an ophthalmologist on visual acuity, visual fields, retinoscopy and the condition of the ocular media.
(4)
The ophthalmic examination shall be repeated at six month intervals and after any accidental exposure; the report of such examinations shall be recorded.
(5)
The expenses involved in obtaining these examinations shall be paid by the employer.
23
All persons engaged in work with laser equipment or laser apparatus shall be instructed by the owner in the hazards relating to
(a)
high and low voltage supplies,
(b)
static electricity,
(c)
flash tube brilliance,
(d)
flash tube explosion,
(e)
flash tube infra-red and ultra-violet light,
(f)
toxic chemicals and gases,
(g)
liquid coolants,
(h)
flammable gases,
(i)
flammable and fusible materials in the beam path, and
(j)
reflective surfaces in the beam path.
24
(1)
The walls of any room in which work involving the use of laser equipment or laser apparatus is carried out shall be rough in texture, dark and non-reflecting.
(2)
All laser equipment and laser apparatus shall be rendered non-reflecting.
25
(1)
No person shall permit the operation of any laser equipment or laser apparatus unless the appropriate warning symbol shown in Table 2 is clearly displayed at all points of approach to, and in and around, the area of operation of the laser equipment or laser apparatus.
(2)
All visual disturbances, after-images, burns, and skin eruptions affecting any person engaged in work involving the use of laser equipment or laser apparatus shall be reported to the person in charge of the operation and the details shall be recorded and that person shall ensure that the Director is notified in accordance with section 15.